International Association of Geodesy (IAG)
Over the past two decades, space geodesy has "come of age," and has evolved from an experimental discipline to one of the most important tools available to scientists interested in active tectonics. It now permits detailed measurements of tectonic motions over spatial and temporal scales never before accessible to Earth scientists. With the ubiquitous accessibility of inexpensive techniques such as the Global Positioning System (GPS) and with the deployment and operation of precise global international geodetic networks and of dense regional permanent networks, the short-term kinematics of plate boundary deformation zones on continents _ where the rigid plate paradigm is inadequate_can now be elucidated in a global reference frame and compared with long-term geological interpretations. This opens new and exciting possibilities for a new, improved understanding of the geomechanics of these regions. This interdisciplinary symposium invites papers dealing with the geodetic aspects of the problem, including descriptions of novel techniques and special network deployments; with the geophysical aspects, specifically the seismic and volcanic cycles; and with the geodynamical aspects, including in particular rheological and dynamical models of the lithosphere and asthenosphere, as well as fault zone mechanics. Papers dealing with applications of such studies to the characterization and mitigation of natural disasters are especially welcome.
Convener: J-B Minster, (IAG/IASPEI) Scripps Institute of Oceanography, University of California at San Diego, Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Science, La Jolla, CA 92093 (USA); tel: 1-619-534-5650; fax: 1-619-534-2902; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
In order to study the volcano-mantle dynamics and volcano-climate connections, the monitoring and analysis of both lava-producing and explosive volcanic eruptions and deposits produced by volcanoes are essential. Terrestrial and space geodetic methods, seismic mentods, as well as aircraft and satellite remote sensing techniques are essential tools to collect data for monitoring and analysis and for the development of early warning systems.
Within its three sessions, the symposium will concentrate on instrumental and analytical methodologies which help to obtain better understanding of processes before, during, and following volcanic eruptions and are used or proposed for volcano monitoring, volcanic eruption prediction, and early warning systems.
Terrestrial and space geodetic techniques for monitoring horizontal and vertical displacements (laser distance measurements, gravity-meter, tiltmeter, GPS Doris, and PRARE space observations) will be covered in Session 1. Airborne and satellite remote sensing methods for acquiring high-resolution multispectral images and the use of radar interferometry from the ERS 1/2 SAR sensors for mapping small-scale topographic changes due to the growth of volcanic domes or the intrusion of magma at shallow depth will be dealt with in Session 2. Seismic methodologies, aimed at revealing the characteristics and origin of volcanic tremors as well as their relationship to volcanic activity and major eruptions will be discussed in Session 3. Automatic event recording, three-component seismometry, broad band seismometry, and special array techniques are considered to be topics of discussion for this session.
Lead Convener: C. Reigber (IAG), GeoForschungs Zentrum (GRZ), Department of Kinematics and Dynamics of the Earth, Telegrafenberg A17, D-14473 Potsdam (GERMANY); tel: +49-331-288-1100 or 1114; fax: +49-331-288-1111; e-mail: email@example.com.
Co-conveners: A. Hasegawa, tel: +81-22-223-7087; fax: +81-22-264-3292 (JAPAN), A. Linde, tel: 1-202-686-4370 x4394; fax: 1-202-364-8726; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org (USA).
The modern approach to understanding Earth rotation irregularities deals with interacting physical constituents as diverse as a liquid, magnetic core, a visco-elastic mantle, and liquid and gaseous external layers, each with internal motions and responding to external forces. The global character of the observational evidence is a major challenge to theoreticians who develop dynamical models of the behavior of each layer. No single theory can explain the complete set of observed irregularities. The monitoring of Earth rotation itself includes the participation of worldwide space geodetic and astronomical programs, leading to intensive international cooperation. The symposium will focus on those aspects of Earth rotation studies that imply, or even create, bridges between scientific disciplines.
Lead Convener: M. Feissel (IAG), Observatoire de Paris, Central Bureau, International Earth Rotation Service, 61, Avenue d'Observatoire, F-75014 Paris (FRANCE); tel: +33-1-4051-2226; fax: +33-1-40-51-22-91; e-mail: email@example.com.
Co-conveners: D. Cartwright (UK), R. Hide (UK), R. Sabadini (ITALY), J. Wahr (USA), P. Brosche (GERMANY).
This symposium will focus on time variations of the main geomagnetic field on all timescales from very short (magnetic jerks) to secular, especially with interpretations related to flow near the core-mantle boundary and global studies at all timescales and using other (e. g., astronomical or seismological) data.
Lead Convener: G. Hulot (IPGP), Laboratoire de Geomagnetisme et Palaeomagnetisme, CNRS UA279, 4 Place Jussieu, B89 Tour 24, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (FRANCE); fax: +33-1-44-27-3373; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Co-conveners: R. A. Langel (USA), D. Crossley (Canada).
This symposium will address recent results in the analysis of open-ocean dynamics as determined from spaceborne sensors, either unaided or in conjunction with conventional measurements. Particular interest will be in the observations from recently launched satellites such as TOPEX/Poseidon, and ERS-1. Fields of interest include wind-driven dynamics (e. g., equatorial wave dynamics, mixed layer variability), sea-surface topography for large-scale circulation studies, open-ocean tides, and surface waves.
Lead Convener: David M. Legler, Mesoscale Air-Sea Interaction Group, Room 020 Love Building, The Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (USA); tel: 1-904-644-3797; fax: 1-904-644-4841; telex: 509525; Omnet: D. LEGLER; e-mail: email@example.com.
Co-conveners: David E. Cartwright (UK), Lee-Lueng Fu (USA), Jean-Francois, Minster (FRANCE), Gennady Korotaev (CRIMEA), Richard Coleman (AUSTRALIA) IAG.
Sea level variations occur across a wide spectrum of space and time scales: from global to local and from millions of years to minutes. This session will highlight the wide range of geophysical causes, and the implications of sea level changes. It will also emphasize how many of them are interrelated.
Lead Convener: David T. Pugh, Institute of Oceanographic Sciences, Deacon Laboratory, Brook Road Wormley, Godalming, Surrey, GU8 5UB (UK); tel: +44-428-684141; fax: +44-428-685637/683066; telex: 858833 OCEANS G; Omnet: D. PUGH; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Co-conveners: Suzanna Zerbini (ITALY), Mark F. Meier (USA).
The observation network of global processes is currently nonuniform and undersampled. Establishing long-term seafloor stations to cover 70% of the Earth's surface, hosting most of the active plate boundaries and hot spots, is the key to bringing about a breakthrough in understanding the dynamic Earth. Careful planning and experiments, taking an interdisciplinary approach through international coordination utilizing available resources such as ODP drilled holes and submarine cables, could accelerate such efforts. Scientific objectives and the technological feasibility of establishing deep sea floor stations to observe geophysical or geochemical parameters ranging from ocean to core processes are to be discussed in light of experimental and theoretical studies.
Lead Convener: K. Suyehiro, Ocean Research Institute, University of Tokyo, 1-15-1 Minamidai, Nakano-ku, Tokyo 164 (JAPAN); tel: +81-3-5351-6439; fax: +81-3-5351-6438; e-mail: email@example.com.
Co-conveners: J.-P. Montagner (FRANCE), J. Orcutt (USA), A. Chave (USA), A. Schultz (UK), F. Spiess (USA).
This symposium will discuss electric, elastic, and ametalic properties from the point of view of observations, modelling, and laboratory investigations. We call for papers which seek to model field observations relevant to Earth's internal physical structure in ways which are also compatible with current laboratory measurements. We also seek papers which show contradictions between current models, data, and laboratory studies, and which therefore indicate a need for future work.
Lead Convener: S. Constable, Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, Scripps Institute of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA 92093-0225 (USA); tel: 1-619-534-2409; fax: 1-619-534-8090; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Co-conveners: A. G. Duba (USA), I. Jackson (AUSTRALIA), J.-P. Poirier, (FRANCE), T. A. Herring (USA).
S JS5: Structure, Evolution, and Dynamics of the Core-Mantle Boundary Region (IASPEI, IAGA, IAG, SEDI)
The session will focus on new observations, coupled with laboratory and theoretical results bearing on the structure and evolution of the Earth's core-mantle boundary. The objective will be to bring together researchers from a wide variety of disciplines_from seismology, geodesy and geomagnetism to geodynamics, geochemistry, and mineral physics_in elucidating what is arguably the most significant geological structure of our planet.
Lead Convener: R. Jeanloz, Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (USA); tel: 1-415-642-3993; fax: 1-415-643-9980; telex: 9103667114; e-mail: email@example.com.
Co-conveners: B. Buffett (CANADA), K. Whaler (UK).
This session will focus on our current knowledge of the state and dynamical processes of the Earth's interior. The focus will be on determination of the physical properties, state and composition of the mantle and core, and on the seismological, geomagnetic, geodetic, geochemical, and laboratory data used to infer them, as well as models of dynamical processes such as the geomagnetic field and flow in the mantle and core that relate observations to the state of the interior.
Lead Convener: R. O'Connell, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Harvard University, 20 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (USA); tel: 1-617-495-2532; fax: 1-617-495-8839; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Co-conveners: G. Masters (USA), M. Brown (USA), V. Dehant (BELGIUM).
The study of potential fields, seismicity, and deformation can be significantly enhanced with standardized observational networks. With the development of digital recording and storage, the rapid growth in global communication systems, and an improving political climate, it is now possible to record and access data from unattended sensors from many previously inaccessible regions of the Earth. Global and regional networks of geophysical instruments for observations in fields such as seismology, geodesy, and geomagnetism are being established or expanded by research and monitoring organizations in many countries. Because of the high costs of establishing and servicing remote sites, there are significant logistical advantages in the co-location of sensors, possibly with common data recording and access. There are difficulties, however, in finding sites that satisfy the sometimes diverse requirements for different types of observation, coordinating siting plans, and establishing arrangements for long-term support and maintenance. This workshop will review the status of global and regional networks in a variety of geophysical disciplines, consider the opportunities for the development of coordinated programs, and explore the scientific insights that might develop from integrated observations.
Lead Convener: D. W. Simpson, Incorporated Research Institute for Seismology, 1616 N. Fort Myer Drive, Suite 1050, Arlington, VA 22209 (USA); tel: 1-703-524-6222; fax: 1-703-527-7256; telex: 7400457 IRIS UC; e-mail: email@example.com.
Co-conveners: G. Beulter (SWITZERLAND), G. Boedecker (GERMANY), D. Kerridge (UK), G. Roult (FRANCE).
This workshop will focus on the changing requirements of the research community for access to geophysical data in the next century. The workshop will discuss both new scientific programs that will be dependent on data availability, and the impact of new data technology on these programs. Important aspects of this new technology are likely to involve high band-width networks, distributed data archive and dissemination facilities, sophisticated network search and retrieval systems, parallel processor computing facilities, and innovative ways to provide data to nontechnical users. These will be accompanied by software developments such as hierarchical data systems, artificial intelligence and neural networks, the use of geographic information systems, and advances in optical character recognition methods. This workshop will provide a forum for interactions between research geophysicists and the computer scientists who will design the data systems of the future.
Lead Convener: M. A. Chinnery, National Geophysical Data Center, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 325 Broadway, Boulder, CO 80303 (USA); tel: 1-303-497-6215; fax: 1-303-497-6513; telex: 592811 NOAA MASC BDR; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Co-conveners: G. A. Sobolev (Russia), C. C. Tscherning (Denmark).
Mantle plumes are fundamental features of mantle dynamics, but they remain poorly understood. This symposium will integrate geochemical and geophysical observations, laboratory and numerical experiments, and theoretical considerations to address some of the more fundamental questions regarding mantle plumes: From what depth do plumes arise? Do they come from both the 670-km discontinuity and core-mantle boundary or just one of these? What is the ultimate source of material in plumes and how do plumes acquire their unique geochemical signatures? What role do mantle plumes play in heat transport, mantle convection, plate motions? What can mantle plumes tell us about the chemical and physical properties of the deep mantle? How has the plume flux varied with time over the history of the Earth? Are there relationships between the geochemical and geophysical properties of mantle plumes?
Lead Convener: W. M. White, Department of Geological Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (USA); tel: 1-607-255-7466; fax: 1-607-254-4780; e-mail: email@example.com.
Co-conveners: L. Fleitout (IASPEI), B. Hager (USA), L. Kellog (USA).
This symposium should reflect the state of the art for all kinds of scientific and engineering applications using the now fully operational Global Positioning System (GPS). It is jointly organized by IAG and the International Union of Surveying and Mappings (IUSM) working group on GPS. The symposium consists of the following sessions: (1) The International GPS Service for Geodynamics (IGS) and other continuously operating GPS reference networks: Their impact on geosciences and engineering. Chairpersons: G. Seeber and L. Hotem; (2) Spaceborne applications of the GPS. Chairpersons: W. G. Melbourne and J. M. Dow; (3) Kinematic Applications of the GPS. Chairpersons: G. Hein and B. Remondi; and (4) The GPS and its relations to geophysics and the other space techniques (such as troposphere, ionosphere, and time transfer). Chairpersons: G. Beutler and Ch. Roecken.
Lead Convener: G. Beutler, Astronomical Institute, University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (SWITZERLAND); tel: +41-31-631-8596; fax: +41-31-631-3869; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Co-conveners: G. Hein (GERMANY), W. Melbourne (USA), G. Seeber (Germany).
The symposium objectives are to focus attention on geodetic activity in the Southeast Asian Region_research, development, and applications promote an exchange of information on geodetic activity within the region, and promote national, regional and international dialogue; encourage global and regional collaboration among academic institutions, researchers, governments and practitioners on current and future geodetic activity pertaining to the region_and to present and discuss recent scientific results of interest to the region. Discussion topics include (1) high-precision techniques applied to geodesy and geodynamics; (2) absolute gravity; (3) regional geoids; (4) global reference frames_implications for Southeast Asia; (5) sea level monitoring; (6) marine geodesy; and (7) other regional projects.
Lead Convener: J. Rais, National Agency for Survey and Mapping, Bakosurtanal, Jalan Raya-Bogor Km 46, P.O. Box 3546/JK, RI-Cibinong (INDONESIA); tel: +62-21-8073067; fax: +62-21-8072064.
Co-convener: J. Manning (AUSTRALIA).
This symposium will discuss new satellite and combination models and methods, gravity information from altimeter observations and surface gravity measurements, improved representation procedures, geoid undulation accuracy, the role of GPS tracking data, future global gravity field mapping missions, factors limiting accuracy of global models, the role of topography, temporal changes from satellite and terrestrial (e. g. absolute gravity) measurementsand geophysical inferences of global gravity models and their time variation.
Lead Convener: R. H. Rapp, Department of Geodetic Science, Ohio State University, 1958, Neil Ave., Columbus, OH 43210 (USA); tel: 1-614-292-6005; fax: 1-614-292-2957; e-mail: rhrapp@ohstmvsa.
Co-conveners: A. Cazenave (FRANCE), R. S. Nerem (USA).
The symposium will address topics of current interest in airborne gravimetry in the following three sessions: (1) System concepts and critical design parameters; (2) Error models and filter design; and (3) Application areas, system tests, and results.
Lead Convener: K. P. Schwarz, University of Calgary, Department of Surveying Engineering, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (CANADA); tel: 1-403-220-7377; fax: 1-403-284-1980; e-mail: email@example.com.
Co-conveners: J. Brozena (USA), G. Hein (GERMANY).
The need for highly precise, high-resolution determination of the geoid/quasi-geoid has strongly increased in recent years, due to the impact of GPS-leveling and geophysical/oceanographic demands. This challenge affects nearly any theoretical and practical aspects of the geodetic boundary value problem (GBVP), forming the conceptual basis of geoid/quasi-geoid determination.
The symposium will focus on (1) progress in theory of the GBVP on the basis of terrestrial, airborne, and space gravity field observations, including overdetermined problems; (2) the role of topography and the use of isostatic models in the framework of the GBVP; (3) modern numerical solution techniques, including spectral approach and finite element/ boundary element methods; and (4) complementary aspects such as downward continuation and regularization.
Lead Convener: B. Heck, Universitat Karlsruhe, Geodatisches Institut, Englerstrasse 7, P.O. Box 6980, D-76128 Karlsruhe (GERMANY); tel: +49-721-608-3674; fax: +49-721-694-552; e-mail: go04@dkuni2.
Co-conveners: R. Forsberg (DENMARK), H. Sunkel (AUSTRIA).
This session will provide a forum to discuss the application of geodetic networks for a variety of geophysical investigations. Areas of particular interest include (1) campaign-type and continuously operating geodetic networks for the study of plate motion, plate boundary crustal deformation, and earthquake and volcanic hazards; (2) collocation of geodetic sensors within existing geophysical networks; (3) geodetic networks for sea level monitoring, glaciology, subsidence, and other vertical motion applications; and (4) sensing of atmospheric water vapor with continuous geodetic networks. Results and conceptual papers are especially solicited.
Lead Convener: M. Prilepin, Soviet Geophysical Committee, Molodezhnaya 3, SU-117296 Moscow GSP-1 (RUSSIA); tel: +7-095-130-0546; fax: +7-095-930-5509; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Co-conveners: Y. Bock (USA), IGPP A-025, Scripps Institute of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92083; tel: 1-619-534-5292; fax: 1-619-534-9823; e-mail: email@example.com, J. Kakkuri (FINLAND).
The subject of the symposium is new techniques or proposed missions for space geodesy which are either under development or have been recently suggested or realized. Thus, the topics range from recently launched experiments such as TOPEX/Poseidon, ERS-1, STELLA, and LAGEOS-2 to planned missions such as GFZ-1, ERS-2, ARTISTOTELES, STEP, or even GP-B or LISA. Both experience with spaceborne GPS, DORIS, or PRARE should be exchanged as well as ideas on future technology concerning tracking, static or dynamic positioning, attitude, or micro-accelerometry. The aim is to provide a total picture of where geodetic space technology currently stands and what the trends most likely will be. Thus, theorists will also discover what problems can and must be addressed in the near future.
Lead Convener: P. L. Bender, University of Colorado, JILA, Box 440, Boulder, CO 80309-0440 (USA); tel: 1-303-492-6793; fax: 1-303-492-5235; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Co-conveners: F. Nouel (FRANCE), C. Reigber (GERMANY), R. Rummel (GERMANY).
Scientific Meetings by the IAG Sections
The IAG Sections will organize their own business and scientific meetings, following the terms of reference published in the Geodesist's Handbook 1992.
Specific topics: (1) continental networks; integrated geodesy; inertial systems; optical interferometry; seafloor positioning; vertical reference systems; rapid precise levelling; static Global Positioning System; kinematic Global Positioning System; and wet propagation delay; (2) Within Section I, Commission X, "Continental Networks" (K. Poder) will organize a meeting on SIRGAS (South American Geocentric Reference System Project), jointly with the Pan-American Institute of Geography and History (PAIGH); and (3) Special Commission SC4 "Applications of Geodesy and Engineering" (K. Linkwitz) will organize a joint session with the IUSM Working Group on Automated Control Measurement (H. Haggren).
Convener: M. Prilepin, Soviet Geophysical Committee, Molodezhnaya 3, SU-117296 Moscow GSP-1 (RUSSIA); tel: +7-095-130-0546; fax: +7-095-930-5509; e-mail: email@example.com; F. K. Brunner, School of Surveying, University of New South Wales, P.O. Box 1, Kensington, NSW 2033 (AUSTRALIA); tel: +61-26974177; fax: +61-23137493.
Specific topics: (1) international coordination of space techniques for geodesy and geodynamics; Wegener project; gravity field determination by satellite gravity-gradiometry; application of space VLBI in the field of astrometry and geodynamics; nongravitational force modelling effects on satellite orbits; spaceborne GPS/GLONASS; time-varying gravitational effects on satellite orbits; altimetry: optimal processing for geodesy, geophysics, and oceanography.
Convener: C. Reigber, GeoForschungs Zentrum (GRZ), Department of Kinematics and Dynamics of the Earth, Telegrafenberg A17, D-14473 Potsdam (GERMANY); tel: +49-331-288-1100 or 1114; fax: +49-331-288-1111; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Specific topics: (1) international gravity commission; international geoid commission; techniques of precise gravimetry; airborne gravimetry; optimization of spectral gravity field modelling methods; high-resolution geoid modelling and evaluation; and combined use of gravimetry and stress-strain measurement techniques.
Sessions will be arranged as follows:
Oral Session 1: Business Session
Keywords: Report of Section President, Presidents of Commissions, Special Study Groups, International Gravity Bureau, International Geoid Service.
Convener: Hans-Georg Wenzel, Universitat Karlsruhe, Geodatisches Institute, Englersfrasse 7, P.O. Box 6980, D-7500 Karlsruhe 1, Germany; tel: +49-721-608-2301; fax: +49-721-694552; e-mail: email@example.com.
Oral Session 2: Gravimetry
Keywords: Absolute and relative terrestrial gravity measurements, gravity networks and control stations, nontidal gravity variations.
Convener: Iginio Marson, Instituto di Miniere e Geofisica Applicata, Via A. Valerio 10, 34136 Triests, Italy; tel: +39-40-6763478 ext. 479; fax: +39-40-6763497; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Oral Session 3: Geoid Determination
Keywords: global, regional and local geoid determinations from gravimetry, gradiometry, satellite altimetry, geodetic astronomy, satellite altimetry, GPS.
Convener: Hans Sunkel, Technische Universitat Graz, Department of Geodesy and Geoinformatics, Steyergasse 30, A-8010 Graz, Austria; tel: +43-316-873-6346; fax: +43-316-813-247; e-mail: email@example.com.
Poster Session 4: Common for Both Oral Sessions 2 and 3.
Scientific sessions 2 and 3 will provide a forum for those presentations which do not fit into a Union, Inter-Association, or IAG Symposium.
Convener: Rene Forsberg, Kort-og Matrikelstyrelsen, Geodetic Divison, Rentemestervej 8, DK-2400 Copenhagen NV, Denmark; tel: +45-3587-5319; fax: +45-3487-5052; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Specific topics related to Commissions and SSGs include: mathematical and physical foundations of geodesy; modelling and quality control for precise integrated navigation; the role of terrain gravity field modelling; tomography of the atmosphere by geodetic measurements; and integrated inverse gravity modelling; applications of the boundary value problem techniques to space and airborne gravity field.
Convener: F. Sanso, International Geoid Service, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci, 32, 20133 Milano, Italy; tel: +39-2-23996527; fax: +39-2-23996530; e-mail: email@example.com.
Topics addressed by Section V include: (1) reference systems; (2) monitoring and study of time-dependent phenomena, such as polar motion*, geocentric motion, Earth tides, recent crustal movements*, variations of gravity*, and sea-surface topography including mean sea level; (3) geodetic aspects of international geodynamics projects, such as the lithosphere projects*; and (4) geophysical interpretation of gravity* and related data. Papers are solicited in these areas with special emphasis being placed on areas related to current Special Study Groups and Commissions: Earth tides; recent crustal movements*, fundamental constants, rapid Earth orientation variations*, long-term variations in Earth rotation*, geocentric motion, global geodynamical variation*, processing of optical polar motion data, studies of the Baltic Sea, studies of vertical datums*, density distribution within the lithosphere*, and geodetic research toward the reduction of natural hazards.
*Indicates areas where there are Union, Jointly Sponsored or IAG Symposia; authors, depending on the scope of their paper, may want to submit abstracts to these symposia.
Lead Convener: J. Dickey, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, MS 238-332, Pasadena, CA 91109, USA; tel: 1-818-354-3235; fax: 1-818-393-6890; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Co-conveners: M. Feissel, H. Hsu, T. Tanaka.
Working Group on Education.
Conveners: R. Langley, University of New Brunswick, Department of Surveying Engineering, P.O. Box 4400, Fredericton, Canada E3B 5A3; tel: 1-506-453-4700 or 4698; fax: 1-506-453-4943; e-mail: email@example.com; and R. Hoisl.
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IUGG XXI General Assembly