VB11A  EC:Arena  Mon  0830h
VJS3  Volcanic Crater Lakes - Posters (joint  with H,V)
Presiding: S J Freeth, Univ College of Swansea

   0830h   VB11A-01 POSTER  Mineralogy and Geochemistry of 
                    Bottom Sedimentogenesis in Active Underwater 
                    Hydrothermal Systems Confined to Volcanic 
                    Calderas: *A B Osipenko, G A Karpov, S M 
                    Fazlullin, G M Gavrilenko, V A Eroschev-Shak
   0830h   VB11A-02 POSTER  Eruptions of Pyroclastic Sulphur at 
                    Crater Lake of Copahue Volcano, Argentine: 
                    D H Delpino, *A M Bermudez

VB11B  EC:Arena  Mon  0830h
V3  Magma Degassing and Explosive Eruptions - Posters
Presiding: M Bursik, SUNY Buffalo; A Woods, Cambridge

   0830h   VB11B-01 POSTER  Generation of Pyroclastic Flows as a 
                    Result of Secondary Phreatomagmatic 
                    Explosions on Lava Flows During 1994 
                    Eruption of Kluchevskoy Volcano (Kamchatka): 
                    *A B Belousov
   0830h   VB11B-02 POSTER  Discriminations in Generation of 
                    Pyroclastic Deposit Types From Andesitic 
                    Volcanoes of Kamchatka (in the Bezymianny 
                    Volcano Case): *G E Bogoyavlenskaya, O A 
   0830h   VB11B-03 POSTER  The Kliuchevskoi Volcano Eruptions 
                    in 1993 and 1994 and Its Activity During the 
                    Last Decade: G E Bogoyavlenskaya, A Y Ozerov, 
                    S A Khubunaya
   0830h   VB11B-04 POSTER  On Estimating the Amount of 
                    Explosive Gas Emitting During 
                    Strombolian-Type Eruptions: P P Firstov, N M 
   0830h   VB11B-05 POSTER  On the Transport Mechanisms of Hot 
                    Ash Flows: *A Freundt
   0830h   VB11B-06 POSTER  Experiments on Gas Slug Ascent: *A 
                    Freundt, R Seyfried
   0830h   VB11B-07 POSTER  Experiments on Gas-Ash Separation 
                    Processes in Volcanic Umbrella Clouds: *R E 
                    Holasek, S Self, A W Woods
   0830h   VB11B-08 POSTER  Petrologic-Geochemical Indicators of 
                    Andesitic Volcano Eruption Types: *B V Ivanov
   0830h   VB11B-09 POSTER  Endogenetic Factors Bearing on the 
                    Explosive Eruptions: *A Koloskov
   0830h   VB11B-10 POSTER  Field Experiments in Fluid Dynamics: 
                    *F Le Guern, Y Cornette, K Froget, R X 
                    Faivre-Pierret, P Burghoffer
   0830h   VB11B-11 POSTER  Rheological Burst as Mechanism of 
                    Andesitic Pyroclastics Formation: *A P 
   0830h   VB11B-12 POSTER  Simultaneous Observation of Air and 
                    Seismic Waves in 1993 Eruption of Mt. Mayon, 
                    Philippines: H Oshima, B S Tubianosa, R S 
                    Punongbayan, H Okada
   0830h   VB11B-13 POSTER  A New Recording System and 
                    Experimental Observation of Pyroclastic Flow 
                    at Unzen Volcano, Japan: *H Oshima, T Maekawa
   0830h   VB11B-14 POSTER  Nitrogen Solubility in Silicate 
                    Melts and Crystals: With Implications for 
                    Magma Degassing: *S N Shilobreeva, A A Kadik
   0830h   VB11B-15 POSTER  Extrusive Eruptions and Mechanism of 
                    the Transition Between Plinian and Extrusive 
                    Regimes. The Examples of St. Helens 1980, 
                    Bezymyanny 1956, and Shiveluch 1964 Eruptions: 
                    *I B Slezin
   0830h   VB11B-16 POSTER  Physical Model of Bubble Formation 
                    and Eruption in Metastable Liquids: A S 
                    Steinberg, A M Taratorin, M L Khitrov
   0830h   VB11B-17 POSTER  Laboratory Modeling of Explosions: 
                    *G S Steinberg
   0830h   VB11B-18 POSTER  The Source of Explosive Eruptions of 
                    Sakurajima Volcano, Japan: K Uhira, *M Takeo
   0830h   VB11B-19 POSTER  Source Mechanism of Seismic Waves 
                    Excited by Pyroclastic Flows Observed at 
                    Unzen Volcano, Japan: K Uhira, H Yamasato, *M 
   0830h   VB11B-20 POSTER  Eruption Mechanism Inferred From 
                    Pumice of Asama Volcano, Japan: *K Yasuda, K 
                    Kurita, Y Kobayashi
   0830h   VB11B-21 POSTER  Gas-Powered Volcanic Eruptions. II. 
                    Watching Simulated Eruptions in Action: *Y 
                    Zhang, B Sturtevant, E M Stolper

VB12A  SRC:Room 1  Mon  1330h
VJS3  Volcanic Crater Lakes (joint  with H,V)
Presiding: S J Freeth, University College of Swansea; J C 
           Varekamp, Wesleyan University

   1330h   VB12A-01 The Subglacial Grimsvotn Caldera Lake, 
                    S-Iceland: Chemical Thermometry and Energy 
                    Release: *N Oskarsson
   1350h   VB12A-02 Rollover in Volcanic Crater Lakes?: *A  Rice
   1410h   VB12A-03 Chemical Characters of Crater Lakes at 
                    Quiescent Volcanoes: *M Martini
   1430h   VB12A-04 The Lonar Crater Lake: *K S Murty
   1445h   VB12A-05 Energy-Flux Balance Models for Crater Lakes: 
                    J C Varekamp, G Pasternack
   1505h   Break
   1530h   VB12A-06 The Utility of Heat and Mass Fluxes at Lake 
                    Nyos, Cameroon: *W C Evans, M L Tuttle, G W 
   1550h   VB12A-07 A Numerical Simulation of the Temperature 
                    and Carbon Dioxide Structure in Lake Nyos: 
                    L H Kantha, S M Freeth
   1610h   VB12A-08 Geochemistry of the Crater Lake of Kelut 
                    Volcano in Indonesia: *A Bernard, D Tedesco
   1630h   Discussion

VB12B  Duane Physics:G020  Mon  1330h
V3  Magma Degassing and Explosive Eruptions
Presiding: M Bursik, SUNY Buffalo; A Woods, Cambridge

   1330h   VB12B-01 Sequential Emplacement of the Ignimbrite 
                    Citlaltepetl at Pico de Orizaba Volcano, 
                    Mexico, During the Holocene: *G 
   1345h   VB12B-02 Vent Migration and Changing Eruptive Style 
                    During the 1800 yr BP Taupo Eruption: New 
                    Evidence From the Hatepe and Rotongaio 
                    Phreatoplinian Ashes: *R T Smith, B F 
   1400h   VB12B-03 Intrusive Magma Degassing Tracked by 
                    Volatile Fluxes at a Steadily Erupting 
                    Volcano: Stromboli, Italy: *P Allard, J 
                    Carbonnelle, H Loyer, N Lefol, N Metrich, G 
   1415h   VB12B-04 Volatile Variations in Pyroclastic Series 
                    From Las Canadas Caldera (Tenerife Island): 
                    A Contribution to the Understanding of Its 
                    Explosive History: *M T Villegas, V Arana, A 
                    Buccianti, M Martini
   1430h   VB12B-05 Critical Pore Gas Pressure of Dacite Lavas 
                    in Transition From Dome Extrusion to 
                    Vulcanian Explosion at Unzen Volcano, Japan: 
                    H Sato, T Kitamura, M Kusakabe, S Nakada
   1445h   VB12B-06 Origin of the Sound Generated by Strombolian 
                    Explosions: *S Vergniolle, G Brandeis
   1500h   Break
   1530h   VB12B-07 Volcanic Sulfur Dioxide Mass Estimates From 
                    TOMS: A J Krueger, L S Walter, *P K Bhartia, 
                    C C Schnetzler, N A Krotkov, I Sprod, G J 
   1545h   VB12B-08 The Effects of Magma Composition Variations 
                    on the Dynamics of Magma Ascent During 
                    Explosive Eruptions: *P Papale
   1600h   VB12B-09 Mechanism of Degassing of Silicic Melts and 
                    Eruption of Ignimbrites: *V N Anfilogov, E I 
   1615h   VB12B-10 Quench Supersaturation Explosions: 
                    Application to the Volcanic Environment: *A  
   1630h   VB12B-11 Experiments on the Explosive Fragmentation 
                    of Erupting Magma: *I  Sugioka, M I Bursik

VB21A  EC:Arena  Tues  0830h
VJS4  Geochemical and Geophysical Signatures of Mantle Plumes - 
Posters (joint  with G,S,SEDI,V)
Presiding: A Rocholl, Univ Heidelberg

   0830h   VB21A-01 POSTER  Cretaceous Intraplate Volcanism in 
                    the W-Pacific: A Sr-Nd-Pb Isotopic Study: *A  
                    Koppers, H Staudigel
   0830h   VB21A-02 POSTER  Insights on Mantle Plume Origin and 
                    Structure From the Society Islands: *W M 
   0830h   VB21A-03 POSTER  Primary Magma Compositions of 
                    HIMU-OIB From Cook-Austral Islands: *T  
                    Kogiso, H  Shimoda, H G Barsczus, Y  Tatsumi
   0830h   VB21A-04 POSTER  Rare Gas Profile Across a Hawaiian 
                    Mantle Xenolith: *A Rocholl, E Heusser, T 
                    Kirsten, J Oehm, H Richter
   0830h   VB21A-05 POSTER  The Isotopic Chemistry of Basalts 
                    vs. Melting Depth Geomagnetic Correlations 
                    and a Proposal for an Explanation: *G P 
                    Gregori, G M Crisci
   0830h   VB21A-06 POSTER  Is There a Hot Spot Under the Sicily 
                    Channel? Evidence From the Island of 
                    Pantelleria: *L Civetta, M D'Antonio, G Orsi, 
                    G R Tilton
   0830h   VB21A-07 POSTER  Geophysical Fields and Background of 
                    Exceptional Structure for Deep Latent Mantle 
                    Plume in Bohai Sea: T Jiwen, Z Zhongjie, W 
                    Aiwu, Z Bingming
   0830h   VB21A-08 POSTER  Geophysical Signatures of Mantle 
                    Plume of North China Basin: *V V Baranova
   0830h   VB21A-09 POSTER  Imaging a Mantle Plume Beneath the 
                    Massif Central (France) by a 
                    Multidisciplinary Approach: *M  Granet, U  
                    Achauer, M  Wilson, R P Patterson
   0830h   VB21A-10 POSTER  Seismic Signature of the Mantle 
                    Plume Beneath Southern Africa: *L  Vinnik, R  
                    Green, L  Nicolaysen, L  Kosarev, N  Petersen
   0830h   VB21A-11 POSTER  Hotspot Detection From Seismological 
                    Data: *J P Montagner, E Stutzmann, G Roult, P 

VB21B  D WRD:Auditorium  Tues  0830h
VJS4  Geochemical and Geophysical Signatures of Mantle Plumes
 (joint  with G,S,SEDI,V)
Presiding: W M White, Cornell Univ; U Christensen, 
           Inst fur Geophysik

   0830h   VB21B-01 INVITED  Mantle Plumes: Introduction and 
                    Overview: *W M White
   0845h   VB21B-02 INVITED  Generation and Rise of Mantle Plumes: 
                    *G F Davies
   0905h   VB21B-03 INVITED  The Structure of Thermal Plumes in 
                    the Mantle: *L H Kellogg, S D King
   0925h   VB21B-04 Plume Generation and Mantle Flow Reversal 
                    due to Heat-Screening Effect of the 
                    Supercontinent: *A  Bobrov, V  Trubitsyn
   0940h   VB21B-05 The Dynamics of Asymmetric Lithosphere: Or 
                    Why Do Flood Basalts Occur at Craton 
                    Boundaries?: *S D King
   0955h   Break
   1025h   VB21B-06 INVITED  Mantle Plume Dynamics and 
                    Geochemical Entrainment: *C G Farnetani, M A 
   1045h   VB21B-07 INVITED  Mantle Plumes and Other Chemical 
                    Messages From the Earth's Interior: *E H 
   1105h   VB21B-08 INVITED  Pb-He Isotope Evidence for a Common 
                    Mantle Plume Source: *B B Hanan, D W Graham
   1120h   VB21B-09 Differences in the Isotopic Ratios of the 
                    Hot Spot Volcanism: *W  Marzocchi, F  
   1135h   VB21B-10 O-Isotope Geochemistry of Ocean Island 
                    Basalts: *R S Harmon, J Hoefs
   1150h   VB21B-11 Delta~L18~KO of Basalts From the Iceland 
                    Mantle Plume: Evidence for Recycling of 
                    Oceanic Crust?: *B Gautason, K Muehlenbachs, 
                    M Heinesen, R Waagstein

VB21C  EC:Arena  Tues  0830h
V6  Arc Volcanism and Sedimentation - Posters
Presiding: R V Fisher, Univ of California, SB; R Cas, Monash Univ

   0830h   VB21C-01 POSTER  On Ash Redeposition Rates and 
                    Generation of Tephroids in the Coastal and 
                    Continental Areas of Active Volcanism: *V A 
   0830h   VB21C-02 POSTER  Compositional Variability of Marine 
                    Hydrothermal Solutions and Sediments From 
                    Two Active Island Arcs: *D S Cronan
   0830h   VB21C-03 POSTER  Inner Structure of the Funnel-Shaped 
                    Nigorikawa Caldera Clarified by 3 km Deep 
                    Geothermal Wells, Hokkaido, Japan: *H 
                    Kurozumi, N Doi
   0830h   VB21C-04 POSTER  Subaqueous Erupted Dacitic Pumice 
                    and Basaltic Peperite Dredged From the Bank 
                    Between Hachijyoshima Is. and Aogashima Is., 
                    North Part of Izu-Ogasawara Arc, Japan: *I 
                    Sakamoto, T Sato
   0830h   VB21C-05 POSTER  Pyroclastic Surge Deposits of 
                    Bezymianny Volcano: *O A Girina
   0830h   VB21C-06 POSTER  Convective Differentiation of 
                    Pyroclastic From Andesitic Volcanoes: *O A 
   0830h   VB21C-07 POSTER  Folding Related to Devonian Peperite 
                    Formation, Northern Sierra Nevada, California: 
                    *E R Brooks
   0830h   VB21C-08 POSTER  The Enormous Chillos Valley Lahar, 
                    Cotopaxi Volcano, Ecuador: *M L Hall, P A 
                    Mothes, R Janda
   0830h   VB21C-09 POSTER  Lahars of the 26 June, 1877 Eruption 
                    of Cotopaxi Volcano, Ecuador: *P A Mothes, 
                    M L Hall, R Janda

VB21D  SRC:Room 1  Tues  0930h
V6  Arc Volcanism and Sedimentation
Presiding: R V Fisher, Univ of California, SB; R Cas, Monash Univ

   0930h   VB21D-01 INVITED  The Role of a Minor Change in 
                    Regional Convergence Vectors in Causing 
                    Almost Immediate Inception of Arc Volcanism 
                    in the Early Miocene of Northern New Zealand: 
                    *I E M Smith, P F Ballance, M J Isaac
   1000h   Break
   1030h   VB21D-02 Origins of Three Distinct Types of 
                    Subaqueous Pyroclastic Mass Flow Deposits in 
                    an Oceanic Arc Terrane: Evidence From the 
                    Early Cretaceous Alisitos Group, Baja 
                    California (Mexico): *B N Fackler Adams, C J 
   1045h   VB21D-03 Volcaniclastic Backarc Neogene Sedimentation 
                    of the Andes (SVZ), Argentina: *M M Mazzoni
   1100h   VB21D-04 Chronology of the 1994 Lahars at Mount 
                    Pinatubo and Consequent Hazards and Risks: 
                    R A Arboleda, S G Catane, *P J Delos Reyes, 
                    M L Martinez, H T Mirabueno, T M Regalado, 
                    B S Tubianosa, J V Umbal, R S Punongbayan, 
                    C G Newhall, R A Alonso
   1115h   VB21D-05 Interactions Between Volcanism and Fluvial 
                    Sedimentation, Central Arizona, USA: *T J 
                    Schroeder, J C Hurlbert, N R Riggs
   1130h   VB21D-06 Flow and Deposition Mechanism of the 
                    Hokkaido Komagatake 1929 Pyroclastic Flow 
                    and the Unzendake 1991-1995 Pyroclastic 
                    Flows, Japan: *S Takarada
   1145h   VB21D-07 Paleovegetational Evidence for the Onset of 
                    Arc Volcanism: Eocene/Oligocene Cedarville 
                    Flora, Western Cascades (USA): *J A Myers, 
                    R V Fisher

VB21E  EC:Arena  Tues  0830h
V9  General Volcanology/Geochemistry - Posters
Presiding: R Carlson, Carnegie Inst

   0830h   VB21E-01 POSTER  Copper Sulphide Mineralization and 
                    Minerals Related to the Volcanites of the 
                    Albania's Ophiolites: V Bezhani, M Koci
   0830h   VB21E-02 POSTER  On Some Features of Whole Rock and 
                    Mineral Rb-Sr Isochrons: *S Brandt, M 
                    Maslovskaya, V Chernikov
   0830h   VB21E-03 POSTER  Sorption Properties of Ash From 
                    Basaltic Volcanoes: *V A Budnikov
   0830h   VB21E-04 POSTER  Fission Track and ~L40~KAr/~L39KAr 
                    Dating of the Late Cretaceous Zhangzhou 
                    Igneous Complex, SE China: C H Chen, J L Tien, 
                    C H Lo, W Kelong
   0830h   VB21E-05 POSTER  The High-Titanium Volcanic Rocks in 
                    the Area of Central-Kamchatka Depression: *T  
                    Churikova, A V Koloskov
   0830h   VB21E-06 POSTER  Sr Isotope Systematic in Whole 
                    Rocks, Plagioclase Phenocrysts, and Glasses 
                    for Single Volcano (Kamchatka): *T  Churikova, 
                    Y A Kostitsyn
   0830h   VB21E-07 POSTER  Hydrogen Activities in the Upper 
                    Mantle: *D Letian, S Changqi, R Jiasu
   0830h   VB21E-08 POSTER  Depth Temperatures and Fluid 
                    Movement in Chaves Region: *M R Duque, F A 
                    Monteiro Santos
   0830h   VB21E-09 POSTER  Mechanism of Fissure Eruptions: *S A 
   0830h   VB21E-10 POSTER  The Evolution of the Volcanic 
                    Processes Within the Gutai Mts. (East 
                    Carpathians, Romania): *A Fulop, S Halga
   0830h   VB21E-11 POSTER  Compositional Changes in the Barren 
                    Island Eruption: D Haldar, P K Banerjee
   0830h   VB21E-12 POSTER  Late Miocene Melafoidites of Central 
                    Iran: A New Timing Constraint on the Zagros 
                    Continental Collision: *J Hassanzadeh
   0830h   VB21E-13 POSTER  Some Aspects of Evolutionary History 
                    of Andaman Ophiolite Suite (AOS), India: *S G 
                    Karkare, A Tripathi
   0830h   VB21E-14 POSTER  Sectors of the Earth's Continental 
                    Hemisphere and Development of Large Rift 
                    Zones: *G G Kochemasov
   0830h   VB21E-15 POSTER  Radionuclides Constraints on 
                    Degassing Processes at Mount Etna During the 
                    Period 1983-1994: M F Le Cloarec, B Ardouin, 
                    M Pennisi
   0830h   VB21E-16 POSTER  The Sulphur Behavior in Volcanic and 
                    Industrial Systems: Help to Interpret 
                    Planetary Volcanism: *F LeGuern, B 
                    Cheynet Thermodata
   0830h   VB21E-17 POSTER  Mt. Clisbako, Central British 
                    Columbia: Stratigraphy of an Eroded Eocene 
                    Volcano Hosting Epithermal Mineralization: *P 
                    Metcalfe, C B Hickson
   0830h   VB21E-18 POSTER  Taftan: Un Volcanisme d'Une 
                    Subduction Permanente: *H Moine-Vaziri
   0830h   VB21E-19 POSTER  Petrological Changes in the 
                    Evolution of Deception Island, Antarctica: C 
                    Risso, A Aparicio, A Caselli, R Ortiz
   0830h   VB21E-20 POSTER  The Arbansky Massif - The Largest 
                    Block of Early Precambrian Upper Mantle and 
                    Lower Crustal Rocks in Russia: *E V Sharkov, 
                    E E Laz'ko, M M Bogina, B V Sarelainen, J E 
   0830h   VB21E-21 POSTER  Experimental Investigation of Magmas 
                    Mixing: *R N Sobolev
   0830h   VB21E-22 POSTER  Temperature of Acid Magma Lifting: 
                    *R N Sobolev
   0830h   VB21E-23 POSTER  Tectonic Evolutions of Volcanic Belt 
                    in Eerqisi Xinjiang, China: *Y Xueyuan
   0830h   VB21E-24 POSTER  Construction of Lithosphere Profile 
                    at Nushan, East China: An Application Study 
                    of Xenoliths in Cenozoic Basaltic Rocks: *X 
                    Xu, X Zhou, S Y O'Reilly
   0830h   VB21E-25 POSTER  On Crust Evolution of South-East 
                    China Using Granite as a Probe: *W Yixian
   0830h   VB21E-26 POSTER  Why Do Three Types Exist in the 
                    Relation Between Edifice Height, Height 
                    Above Sea Level, and Height of Base of the 
                    Volcanoes in the Subduction Zones?: *A 
   0830h   VB21E-27 POSTER  Magma Origin and Evolution of 
                    Volcanic Rocks in Eerqisi, Xinjiang, China: *B 
   0830h   VB21E-28 POSTER  Alkaline-Rich Plutons - A Key to 
                    Understanding the Mantle: *Z Zhenhua
   0830h   VB21E-29 POSTER  Modern Mantle-Derived Fluid Release 
                    at the Areas of Volcanic Activity in China: *S 
   0830h   VB21E-30 POSTER  Volcanic Gases Emission Temperature 
                    Deduced From the Composition of Dust in the 
                    Snow: *F Le Guern, B Cheynet
   0830h   VB21E-31 POSTER  Eduction or Subduction?: Y V Chudinov, 
                    A V Nikolaev
   0830h   VB21E-32 POSTER  Volcanic Emission Metals in the Ice 
                    Record: *A Matsumoto, T K Hinkley

VB22A  D WRD:Auditorium  Tues  1335h
VJS4  Geochemical and Geophysical Signatures of Mantle Plumes
 (joint  with G,S,SEDI,V)
Presiding: L H Kellogg, Univ of California, D; E H Hauri, 
           Carnegie Inst of Washington

   1335h   VB22A-01 INVITED  Advection of Plumes - Implications 
                    on Pacific-Antarctic Relative Motion and 
                    Mean Lithospheric Rotation: *B Steinberger, 
                    R J O'Connell
   1355h   VB22A-02 Revised Plate Circuit Estimates of Hotspot 
                    Drift: *C A Raymond, J M Stock, S C Cande
   1410h   VB22A-03 Spreading of Buoyant Mantle Plumes Beneath 
                    Mid-Ocean Ridges: M A Feighner, *L H Kellogg
   1425h   VB22A-04 INVITED  3-D Modeling of Plume-Ridge 
                    Interaction: Application to Iceland: *U R 
                    Christensen, J Theissing, N M Ribe
   1445h   VB22A-05 Structure and Composition of Iceland Plume: 
                    *M K Kaban, O G Flovenz, G  Palmason
   1500h   Break
   1530h   VB22A-06 The Heterogeneous Iceland Plume: New 
                    Insights From the Alkalic Basalts of the 
                    Snaefell Volcanic Centre: V L Hards, *P D 
   1545h   VB22A-07 Os Isotope Systematics in Ocean Island 
                    Basalts: Lithospheric Contamination and 
                    Mantle Plume Signatures: *E Widom, S B Shirey, 
                    K A Hoernle, H U Schmincke
   1600h   VB22A-08 Lateral Extent of Large Volume Magmatism 
                    During North Atlantic Break-Up in the 
                    Vicinity of the Icelandic Plume: Results 
                    From a New Deep Seismic Survey, SE Greenland: 
                    T  Dahl-Jensen, *J R Hopper, H C Larsen
   1615h   VB22A-09 Consequence of Possible Plume Trace/Outburst 
                    Along the Western Edge of the Indian 
                    Subcontinent: *U Raval
   1630h   VB22A-10 Density of the Peridotite Melts at High 
                    Pressure and Its Implications for the Plume 
                    Process in the Deep Mantle: E Ohtani, A 
                    Suzuki, T Kato
   1645h   VB22A-11 Geoid anomalies of the Nasca Plate - 
                    Implications for Rising Mantle Material: *G 

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