2002 Ocean Sciences Meeting Special Sessions

OS01 CDOM in the Coastal Ocean: Transformation Processes and Their Effects on Optical Properties
Colored Dissolved Organic Material (CDOM) in surface waters absorbs solar radiation to undergo complicated photochemical reactions that alter its chemical composition and susceptibility to biological degradation. Biological processes in turn also transform CDOM, altering both its chemical composition and photochemical reactivity. Both of these transformation processes alter the optical properties of CDOM and, therefore, critically impact ocean color in coastal waters where biological activity and DOM inputs are high. The focus of this special session will be on recent investigations of the rates, pathways, and consequences of photochemical and biological transformation processes acting on CDOM in coastal zones and their effects on inherent optical properties and coastal ocean color.
Conveners: Dr. Rod G. Zika, University of Miami, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science Division of Marine and Atmospheric Chemistry , Miami, FL 33149 USA, Tel: (305) 361-4922, Fax: (305) 361-4689, email: rzika@rsmas.miami.edu, and Dr. Paula Coble, University of South Florida, College of Marine Sciences 140 Seventh Avenue South , St. Petersburg, FL 33701-5016 USA, Tel: (727) 553-1130, Fax: (727) 553-1189, email: pcoble@seas.marine.usf.edu, and Dr. Catherine D. Clark, Chapman University, Department of Environmental and Chemical Sciences One University Drive , Orange, CA 92866 USA, Tel: (714) 628-7341, Fax: (714) 532-6048, email: cclark@chapman.edu

OS02 Coupled Biophysical Processes, Fisheries Resources, and Climate Variability in Coastal Ecosystems of the Northeast Pacific Ocean
The past decade has shown renewed scientific investigations in coastal regions of the Northeast Pacific (NEP). New interdisciplinary programs have foci ranging from phytoplankton and harmful algal blooms (ORHAB), recruitment of benthic invertebrate larvae (PISCO), wind-driven cross-shelf exchange (CoOP) and the
mechanisms that regulate the success of holozooplankton and fish (GLOBEC). These programs supplement established longer-term observation programs
(CalCOFI, MBARI, Line P, Vancouver Island Shelf) and examine the responses of coastal ecosystems to forcing over broad spatial and temporal scales. A common goal of these programs is to elucidate the biological-physical mechanisms responsible for correlative changes that have been observed in the NEP. This session will provide a forum for investigators from a number of disciplines -- climatologists, physicists, plankton biologists, and fisheries scientists to present recent findings from the NEP region. We encourage presentations that link observations over multiple disciplines or datasets.
Conveners: Harold P. Batchelder, College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Oregon State University 104 Ocean Admin Bldg, Corvallis, OR
97331-5503 USA, Tel: (541) 737-4500, Fax: (541) 737-2064, email: hbatchelder@oce.orst.edu, and P. Ted Strub, College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Oregon State University 104 Ocean Admin Bldg, Corvallis, OR 97331-5503 USA, Tel: (541) 737-3015, Fax: (541) 737-2064, email: tstrub@oce.orst.edu

OS03 Transport and Transformation of Biogeochemically Important Materials in Coastal Waters
In coastal waters, materials originating from offshore and terrestrial sources are subject to intense biological, chemical, and geological processing. Transport and
distribution of these materials are influenced by a combination of wind, buoyancy, tidal and boundary layer processes. This session will address the flux of materials to/from coastal waters, the transformations they undergo, and how these processes determine the character of these waters - for example, as addressed by the Coastal Ocean Processes (CoOP) program. This session will also include papers that put these processes in context, addressing the ecological structure and function of these coastal waters, the capacity of coastal waters to assimilate anthropogenic inputs, the ability of coastal waters to sustain fisheries, and the influence of these coastal waters on regional climate.
Conveners: Brian J. Eadie, NOAA - Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, 2205 Commonwealth Blvd, Ann Arbor, MI 48105-2945 USA, Tel: (734) 741-2281, Fax: (734) 741-2055, , and John L. Largier, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego 9500 Gilman Drive, Dept. 0209, La Jolla, CA 92093-0209 USA, Tel: (858) 534-6268, Fax: (858) 534-0300, email: jlargier@ucsd.edu, and Jack A. Barth, College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Science, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331-5503 USA, Tel: (541) 737-1606, Fax: (541) 737-2064, , and Sarah A. Green, Michigan Technological University, 1400 Townsend Drive, Houghton, MI 49931 USA, Tel: (906) 487-3419, Fax: (906) 487-2177,

OS04 The Cycle of Carbon in the Southern Ocean (S.O.)
The Southern Ocean, encompassing the circumpolar ocean from the Subtropical Front to Antarctic coastal waters, is a region of importance for air-sea CO2
exchange. Environmental conditions and oceanographic processes influencing carbon fluxes differ among the zonal subsystems of the Southern Ocean, and by
comparing carbon fluxes in different regions, under the influence of different processes and conditions, insights into the sensitivity of the system to climate change can be realized. Process studies in the different subsystems that composed the SO have confirmed the key role of iron in primary production ; however neither natural fertilization process studies nor artificial fertilization experiments (SOIREE + EISENEX) have been able to demonstrate Fe really helps the export of carbon towards the ocean interior. Although recent satellite-based estimates of primary productivity have confirmed the Antarctic paradox (low productivity in a nutrient-rich area), either inverse modeling at regional/global scale or process studies in different sectors of the SO show the export flux of organic carbon is much more important than expected. We encourage presentations on all aspects of these questions: from observations of pCO2, production, export, and foodwebs, to models of their relations to ocean circulation, and sensitivity to climate change. Synthetic views at regional scale are also encouraged.
Conveners: Paul Tréguer, Institut Universitaire Europeen de la Mer, MR CNRS 6539 Technopole Brest-Iroise, France, , FRA, email: Paul.Treguer@univ-brest.fr, and Ulrich Bathmann, Institut Universitaire Europeen de la Mer, UMR CNRS 6539 Technopole Brest-Iroise, France, , FRA, email: ubathmann@awi-bremerhaven.de, and Tom Trull, Institut Universitaire Europeen de la Mer, UMR CNRS 6539 Technopole Brest-Iroise, France, , FRA, email: tom.trull@utas.edu.au, and Phillip Boyd, Institut Universitaire Europeen de la Mer, UMR CNRS 6539 Technopole Brest-Iroise, France, , FRA, email: pboyd@alkali.otago.ac.nz, and Stephanie Blain, Institut Universitaire Europeen de la Mer, UMR CNRS 6539 Technopole Brest-Iroise, France, , FRA, email: Stephane.Blain@univ-brest.fr

OS05 Maintaining Deep Ocean Stratification
The debate about the importance of diapycnal mixing in establishing the ocean's stratification beneath the thermocline is heating up. The classical explanation that the deep ocean's stratifcation results from a balance between downward diffusion of heat and upward flux of the cold water convected to the seafloor at very high latitudes is challenged by arguments for direct ventilation (through contact with the atmosphere at mid- to high latitudes) of all layers of the deep ocean. Researchers are examining all aspects of the processes involved in these two points of view. For example, direct turbulence measurements have become possible in the abyssal ocean. Large-scale energy sources (some catalyzed by topography) for deep mixing are being identified observationally and simulated numerically. And indirect estimates of diapycnal fluxes are increasingly sought from inversions of the WOCE augmented hydrographic database, which data also provide better estimates of direct ventilation of the deep ocean. This session seeks to bring together investigators studying all phenomena relating to the maintenance of the deep ocean (sub-thermocline) stratification at low and mid-latitudes. Empirical and computational contributions are equally welcome.
Conveners: Rob Pinkel, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego Marine Physical Laboratory 9500 Gilman Drive, Dept. 0213, La Jolla, CA 92093-0213 USA, Tel: 858-534-2056, Fax: 858-534-7132, email: rpinkel@ucsd.edu, and James Ledwell, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Applied Ocean Physics and Engineering, Woods Hole, MA 02543-1053 USA, Tel: 508-289-3305, Fax: 508-457-2194, email: jledwell@whoi.edu

OS06 Oceanic Internal Tides
Internal (baroclinic) tides are generated by the interaction of the surface (barotropic) tidal currents with the irregular topography at the bottom of the stratified oceans. They are observed throughout the world's oceans and continental shelves, and can reach prodigious amplitudes in the deep sea and the upper ocean, in the form of non-linear internal wave packets. Once thought to be of little importance in the global energy budget, the internal tides are enjoying a revival of interest regarding their importance to both the global tidal energy budget and to the maintenance of the abyssal stratification through enhanced diapycnal mixing. Contributions are solicited that deal with all aspects of the generation, evolution and dissipation of the internal tides in the deep ocean and shallow seas and shelves. We welcome discussions of observations and models of the internal tides, as well as discussions on topics that deal with the impact of the internal tides on other phenomena, such as mixing.
Conveners: Douglas Luther, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Oceanography School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology 1000 Pope Road, MSB 205 , Honolulu, HI 96822 USA, Tel: 808-956-5875, Fax: 808-956-9165, email: dluther@soest.hawaii.edu, and Murray Levine, Oregon State University, College of Oceanic & Atmospheric Sciences 104 Ocean Admin Building , Corvallis, OR 97331 USA, Tel: 541-737-3047, Fax: 541-737-2064, email: Levine@oce.orst.edu, and Rob Pinkel, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Marine Physical Laboratory 9500 Gilman Drive, Dept. 0213, La Jolla, CA 92093-0213 USA, Tel: 858-534-2056, Fax: 858-534-7132, email: rpinkel@ucsd.edu, and James Ledwell, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Applied Ocean Physics and Engineering, Woods Hole, MA 02543-1053 USA, Tel: 508-289-3305, Fax: 508-457-2194, email: jledwell@whoi.edu

OS07 Biogeochemical Evolution of the Phanerozoic Ocean
Continental drift has constantly and dramatically changed the geometry of the world ocean over the past 540 million years and as a consequence has altered
thermohaline circulation patterns, latitudinal heat transport, and ocean productivity. The Phanerozoic ocean has also been subject to changes in hydrothermal activity at mid-ocean ridges, sequestration of marine salts on land masses, and continental input of limiting biological nutrients such as Fe and P. More dramatic events such as the end-Proterozoic "snowball" glaciations, the formation of large igneous provinces at the end of the Permian and the Jurassic, the appearance of supercontinental ice sheets in the Permian, the Cretaceous Tertiary impact, or the Late Paleocene Thermal Maximum may also have significantly impacted the physical and chemical character of the oceans. Finally, biological innovations, such as the evolution of burrowing animals, siliceous diatoms, or vascular plants probably had a profound direct or indirect effect on ocean chemistry. The geologic, geochemical and paleontological records provide some constraints on the chemical (e.g., redox) evolution of the ocean, however the ocean's predominant role in climate, the hydrological cycle and the carbon cycle create feedbacks that can confuse cause and effect. Contributions that address the marine geologic record and its interpretation, describe the nature and influence of individual physical or biological processes on the physics and chemistry of the oceans over geologic time, simulate past ocean conditions, or examine individual critical events during the Phanerozoic are welcomed.
Conveners: Eric Gaidos, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Geology & Geophysics POST 710 1680 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96822 USA, Fax: 808-956-5512, email: gaidos@gps.caltech.edu, and Fred Mackenzie, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Oceanography School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology Manoa, 1000 Pope Road, Honolulu, HI 96822 USA, Tel: (808) 956-6344, Fax: (808) 956-7112, email: fredm@soest.hawaii.edu

OS08 Reforming Education in the Ocean Sciences for All Citizens
Educators in the ocean sciences are seeking answers to fundamental questions about educational reform: from how to engage the interests in the ocean of child and adult learners and improve their learning of ocean sciences to how to encourage the professional development of ocean sciences educators, from how to incorporate instructional technology that is soundly based pedagogically to how to educate professional ocean scientists and science teachers. Not only do the ocean sciences provide an exciting multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary context in which to teach the fundamental concepts of biology, chemistry, the physical sciences, and mathematics in accordance with the National Science Education Standards, but by being multidisciplinary and highly integrative, the ocean sciences can take a leadership role in national science education reform and, at the same time, increase their visibility. New funding initiatives for science and math education, at both the federal and state levels, call for the involvement of members of higher education in raising standards for teachers as well as students. Yet despite this unique opportunity, ocean sciences as a whole have been significantly absent from these reform efforts. An important challenge to the ocean sciences community, then, is to engage ocean scientists in conveying the excitement of their research to ocean sciences educators, K-12 and post-secondary students, and the general public. This session will encourage discussion of innovative strategies that widen the impact of ocean sciences research and education research at all educational levels. Topics to
be covered in this session will include: (1) conceptions of ocean sciences education, (2) funding initiatives for the improvement of ocean sciences education, (3) how to inspire the interest of pre-college and college students in the ocean sciences and in careers in the ocean sciences, (4) non-traditional methods for the recruitment and retention of undergraduate and graduate students in the ocean sciences, and (5) ocean sciences education for policy makers, resource managers and the general public.
Conveners: Dean A. McManus, University of Washington, School of Oceanography and Center for Instructional Development and Research, Box 357940, Seattle, WA 98195-7940 USA, Tel: 206-543-0587, Fax: 206-543-6073, email: mcmanus@ocean.washington.edu, and Jennifer Cherrier, Florida A&M University, Environmental Sciences Institute, Tallahassee, FL 32307 USA, Tel: 850-561-2134, Fax: 850-561-2248, email: jennifer.cherrier@famu.edu, and Carolyn Thoroughgood, University of Delaware, College of Marine Studies 111 Robinson Hall, Newark, DE 19716-3501 USA, Tel: 302-831-2841, Fax: 302-831-4389, email: ctgood@udel.edu, and George Matsumoto, Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, P.O. Box 628 7700 Sandholdt Road, Moss Landing, CA 95039-9644 USA, Tel: 831-775-1757, Fax: 831-775-1620, email: mage@mbari.org, and Paula Coble, University of South Florida, College of
Marine Science , St. Petersburg, FL 33701 USA, Tel: 727-553-1130, Fax: 727-553-1189, email: pcoble@marine.usf.edu

OS09 Paleoceanography of Warm and Cold Climates During the Cenozoic Cooling Trend
One of the grand paleoclimatic problems that has challenged paleogeographers, paleoclimatologists, and paleoceanographers for decades is, how has the world
ocean controlled climate change on geological time scales. This problem is linked to the core problem of the origin of warm deepwater masses and their feedbacks on climate dynamics. Paleoceanographic data suggest that, at some locations and at some time intervals of the late Cretaceous and Early Cenozoic, ocean deepwater temperatures were as high as 15 deg C, a condition not to be found at any later time intervals within the Cenozoic cooling trend. The cooling trend consists of many processes and feedbacks, many of which are not yet fully identified. However, it is believed that the deep ocean is the key component on centennial to millennial time scales and it was a crucial link in long-term climatic trends. How the deep ocean responded to changes in land-sea distributions and to changes in hydrological cycles in the transition periods from warmer to cooler and colder climates remains the main issue in improving our understanding of the fundamental role of the ocean in the earth climate history. Regarding the role of the ocean in long-term climate transitions, three major topics can be selected as the most important: 1. The sensitivity of the ocean circulation, and the climate system in general, to changes of the land-sea distributions caused by the continental drift and sea level variations; 2. The role of the ocean in glacial-to-interglacial transitions caused by external impacts and internal dynamics of the climate system; 3. The sensitivity of the ocean circulation to
variations in hydrological cycles characteristic of warming and cooling trends found in geologic record. The transition from the warm Mesozoic climates to the cooler Cenozoic climates and oscillations between warmer and colder periods within the Cenozoic cooling trend provide unique opportunities to address all three major problems. In order to address this classic paleoclimate issue, which has been investigated at a new level of sophistication over the last decade, this session will have an emphasis on the synergy of data analyses and new advances in numerical modeling. The goal of the session is to examine the links between climate and deep-ocean conditions of the Cenozoic cooling trends at different time slices, through data analyses, studies using atmospheric and ocean circulation models, and syntheses of data and models. Contributions from geologic data analyses and paleoclimate and paleoceanographic modeling revealing the role of the ocean in transitions between warm and cold climates are welcomed.
Conveners: Dan Seidov, Pennsylvania State University, Environment Institute 2217 Earth Engineering Bldg, University Park, PA 16802-6813 USA, Fax:
(814)-865-1921, email: dseidov@essc.psu.edu, and Eric Barron, Pennsylvania State University, Environment Institute 2217 Earth Engineering Bldg , University
Park, PA 16802-6813 USA, Fax: (814)-865-1921, email: eric@essc.psu.edu, and Lisa Sloan, University of California, Santa Cruz Cruz , Dept. of Earth Sciences, Santa Cruz, CA USA, Fax: (831)-459-4882, email: lcsloan@emerald.ucsc.edu

OS10 Molecular Ecology of Carbon and Nitrogen Cycles in Ocean Margins
A significant proportion of the global marine biological production and natural carbon burial occurs in ocean margins due to the activity of the biological pump in these eutrophic waters. The pump's efficiency largely depends on microbial processes that link nitrogen (and other nutrient) transformations to the carbon cycle. Information at the molecular level provides new insights into the roles of micro-organisms in biogeochemical cycles, and a new way to interpret biological processes in complex natural assemblages. This session will focus on studies that study the coupling between carbon and nitrogen cycles at the molecular level in coastal oceans.
Conveners: Frances Wilkerson, San Francisco State University, Romberg Tiburon Center 152 Paradise Drive, Tiburon, CA 94920 USA, Tel: 415 338 3519, Fax: 415 435 7121, email: fwilkers@sfsu.edu, and John Paul, University of South Florida, College of Marine Science 40 7th Avenue South,, St. Petersburg, FL 33701 USA, Tel: 727 553 1168, Fax: 727 553 1189, email: jpaul@seas.marine.usf.edu

OS11 Coral Reef Habitats: New Insights From Integrated Coastal Science
During the past five years there has been an unprecedented explosion of scientific investigations to map, assess, monitor, and understand coral reef habitats. The driving impetus for the marked increase in studies was, and continues to be, the recognition that human activities are having a pronounced and measurable deleterious effect on reefs. Exacerbated coastal sedimentation and pollution, over-fishing, and ocean warming are but a few of the impacts leading to stress, increased disease, bleaching, and necrosis. The complexities of coral reef habitats and the threats that they face has led to studies that integrate science across a wide spectrum of disciplines. Geodesy, sediment dynamics, remote sensing, geochemistry, and coastal circulation are being joined with traditional disciplines in ecology, geology, and zoology to provide new perspectives and new answers. This session focuses on contributions about advancements in understanding coral reef habitats through the integration of coastal science. New methods and technologies for remote sensing and long term monitoring of coral reefs will be highlighted, as will new understanding
of the controls on reef health and sustainability.
Conveners: Michael Field, University of California, Santa Cruz, US Geological Survey Pacific Science Center 1156 High St, Santa Cruz, CA 94076 USA, email: mfield@usgs.gov, and Paul Jokiel, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology P.O.Box 1346 , Kaneohe, HI 96744 USA, email:

OS12 Novel Techniques for Chemical Characterization in Marine Systems
The ability to identify and characterize chemical species in marine and freshwater systems has seen a dramatic improvement with the advent of novel chemical
techniques. These techniques include: mass-spectrometry (e.g., APESI, MALDI, and DT-MS); electrochemical techniques using microelectrodes and voltammetry; solid-state NMR methods, fluorescence techniques; and optical techniques using XANES, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and other microscopy methods. These techniques can address molecular-level questions and identify compounds that range from organics, to organo-metallics, and inorganic species. The identification and quantification of organic and inorganic compounds is allowing new insight into the biological and chemical interactions that influence the rates and processes that control chemical distributions; metal speciation and metal-organic interactions; surface chemistry; and the distribution of specific compounds in complex mixtures. This session will highlight some of the newest advances in chemical characterization as they are being applied to marine and freshwater systems.
Conveners: Hilairy Ellen Hartnett, Rutgers University, Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences 71 Dudley Rd, New Brunswick, NJ 08901 USA, Tel:
732-932-6555 x.234, email: hartnett@IMCS.rutgers.edu, and Liz Minor, Old Dominion University, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Norfolk, VA USA, Tel: 757-68304089, email: eminor@odu.edu

OS13 Coupling of Biogeochemical Processes Between the Upper and Mesopelagic Ocean
Biological, chemical and biogeochemical processes occurring in the upper ocean both influence, and are influenced by biogeochemical transformations at mesopelagic zone (ca. 100 to 1000 m). These processes are important to understand both present and future ocean-atmosphere interactions. The Special Session will bring together biological, chemical and physical oceanographers interested in developing integrated approaches for the mesopelagic, and between the mesopelagic and upper ocean. Presentations are welcomed on a broad range of topics including biogeochemical cycling, elemental transformation (e.g. remineralization), fluxes and food web effects.
Conveners: Richard B. Rivkin, Memorial University of Newfoundland, Ocean Sciences Centre St. John''s, Newfoundland, , A1C 3T3 CAN, Tel: 709-737-3720, Fax: 709-737-3220, email: rrivkin@mun.ca, and Louis Legendre, Laboratoire d''Océanographie de Villefranche, BP 28, 06234 Villefranche-sur-Mer Cedex, , FRA, Tel: 33-4-93-76-38-36, Fax: 33-4-93-76-38-36, email: legendre@obs-vlfr.fr

OS14 Biogeochemical Processes in Anoxic and Suboxic Environments
The Black Sea and Cariaco Basin offer unique opportunities to study biogeochemical processes under anoxic and suboxic conditions in the water column and surficial sediment. This session will highlight results from recent field studies to the Black Sea and Cariaco Basin, and will offer an opportunity to compare processes at these two sites. Papers describing other systems in which anoxic and suboxic conditions are important are also encouraged. We particularly encourage studies using biological, chemical and isotopic approaches to investigate processes in the water column and surficial sediments.
Conveners: Mary Scranton, State University of New York, Marine Sciences Research Center, Stony Brook, NY USA, Tel: (631) 632-8735, Fax: (631)
632-8820, email: mscranton@notes.cc.sunysb.edu, and James Murray, University of Washington, School of Oceanography Box 357940 , Seattle, WA
98195-7940 USA, Tel: (206) 543-4730, Fax: (206) 685-3351, email: jmurray@u.washington.edu

OS15 Low-Latitude Boundary Currents
Low-latitude boundary currents (LLBC) play an important role in ENSO. They are a key component of the global thermohaline circulation through their involvement in the Indonesian Throughflow and the meridional overturning circulation in the Atlantic. Hypotheses for decadal variability involve changes in the subtropical cells (STC) that allow exchange of waters between the subtropical and equatorial oceans. As crossroads for prominent STC pathways, the LLBCs are particularly important for both their regional and global significance in climate variability. We seek presentations of recent observational, theoretical and modeling perspectives on the role of LLBCs in the global ocean circulation, as well as on particular regional issues. Presentations that compare these systems among the three oceans are particularly sought.
Conveners: Tangdong Qu, University of Hawaii, IPRC/SOEST 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822 USA, Tel: (808) 956-9520, email:
tangdong@soest.hawaii.edu, and Roger Lukas, University of Hawaii, Department of Oceanography 1000 Pope Road, Honolulu, HI 96822 USA, Tel: 808) 956-7896, email: rlukas@soest.hawaii.edu

OS16 Bentho-Pelagic Coupling at High Latitudes
High-latitude pelagic ecosystems exhibit the most intense seasonality and the highest export ratios in the world ocean. Thus, a major proportion of annual primary production reaches the seafloor to support high biomass, influence life histories, and cause substantial benthic organic-matter remineralization. Seasonal sea-ice cover and deep-water formation allow benthic remineralization to pump CO2 into the deep ocean. Because global climate change will be most intense at high-latitudes, this bentho-pelagic coupling may change in coming decades. This session will bring together ecological and biogeochemical studies in pelagic and benthic habitats at high latitudes to enhance our understanding of bentho-pelagic coupling in these important ecosystems.
Conveners: Craig Smith, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Oceanography 1000 Pope Road,, Honlulu, HI 96822 USA, Tel: 808-956-8623, email: csmith@soest.hawaii.edu, and David DeMaster, North Carolina State University, Dept. of MEAS , Raleigh, NC 27695-8208 USA, Tel: 919-515-7026, email: Dave_DeMaster@ncsu.edu

OS17 Interactions Between Macro- and Microorganisms in Aquatic Sediments
This session will focus on interactions between macroorganisms (benthic fauna and macrophytes) and the biogeochemistry of aquatic sediments. Geochemical
consequences of biological activity as well as physicochemical forces controlling the abundance and diversity of benthic animals will be addressed. Although this has been a rapidly growing field of interdisciplinary research for the last two decades, a forum for the presentation and discussion of latest developments is lacking. Any presentations related to animal-plant-sediment interactions in aquatic environments (lakes, rivers, intertidal areas, continental shelves, deep seas, cold seeps) using experimental (field studies, laboratory experiments) and/or theoretical (modeling) approaches are welcome.
Conveners: Erik Kristensen, Odense University, Institute of Biology SDU DK-5230 Odense M, Denmark , , DNK, email: ebk@biology.ou.dk; and Joel Kostka, Florida State University, Dept. of Oceanograhpy, Tallaassee, FL 32306-4320 USA, Tel: (850) 645-3334, Fax: (850) 645-4819, email: jkostka@ocean.fsu.edu; and Ralf Haese, Utrecht University, Department of Geochemistry Faculty of Earth Sciences P.O. Box 80021, 3508 TA Utrecht, The Netherlands , , NLD, email: rhaese@geo.uu.nl.

OS18 Synthesis of the Arabian Sea Expeditions
This session invites contributions for any investigations of the Arabian Sea: observational or modeling results directed at biogeochemistry, physical forcing, ecosystem structure or paleoceanography. The intensive field and modeling programs of the last decade provide a rich data source of international scope which has not been fully exploited. Interdisciplinaryb syntheses and international collaborations addressing new questions or unsolved problems are especially encouraged.
Conveners: Sharon L. Smith, University of Miami, The Rosenstiel School 4600 Rickenbacker Causeway, Miami, FL 33149 USA, email: smith@rsmas.miami.edu, and Peter Burkill, Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Prospect Place, Plymouth, PL1 3DH, UK , , GBR, , and Dona Paula, National Institute of Oceanography, S.W.A. Naqvi Goa 403 004 , , IND,

OS19 Biophysical Factors Affecting the Growth and Survival of Aquatic Organisms
The interaction of physical flow mechanisms with biological processes is fundamental for life in aquatic systems. Fluid flow plays a role in a wide range of biological processes by (i) controlling transport rates of material such as nutrients, (ii) imparting forces and (iii) affecting biological interactions. This session seeks to promote work that incorporates fluid mechanics into an understanding of the growth and survival of aquatic organisms at scales comparable to the biological entity and/or the dominant physical process. Contributions are encouraged from research involving marine and freshwater systems including, but not limited to, the following topics: macrophyte-flow interaction, coral-flow interactions, low-Reynolds number feeding/interception behaviour, turbulence/phytoplankton interaction, and mass transfer/ecological interactions in the benthos. All methodology, especially, multi-approach studies are welcome.
Conveners: Joe Ackerman, University of Northern British Colombia, Environmental Studies Program , Prince George, BC V2N 4Z9 CAN, Tel: (250) 960-5839, Fax: (250) 960-5539, email: ackerman@unbc.ca, and Catriona Hurd, University of Otago, Botany Department PO BOX 56, Dunedin, New Zealand , , NZL, Tel: 64 3 479-7571, Fax: 64 3 479-7583, email: Catriona.Hurd@botany.otago.ac.nz, and Craig Stevens, New Zealand National Institute for Water & Atmospheric Reasearch, Marine Biophysics Group PO box 14-901 Kilbirnie, Wellington, 6003, New Zealand, , NZL, Tel: 64 4 386 0300, Fax: 64 4 386 2153, email: c.stevens@niwa.cri.nz

OS20 Recent Advances in Ocean and Freshwater Science Instrumentation (Posters Only)
Progress in the ocean and aquatic sciences is often coupled to the development of new instrumentation and observational capabilities. The usefulness of these new tools, methods and systems may be broad and extend beyond their immediately intended applications. This poster session provides an opportunity for scientists, engineers, and students to present newly developed  instrumentation or technology that would be of interest to a diverse audience of ocean and fresh water science investigators. It is also an opportunity to more fully describe the instrumentation used to collect data and research results that are presented elsewhere at the Meeting.
Conveners: H. Lawrence Clark, National Science Foundation, Oceanographic Technology Program Room 725 4201 Wilson Blvd, Arlington, VA 22230 USA, Tel: (703)292-8580, Fax: (703)292-9085, email: hclark@nsf.gov, and Elizabeth Rom, National Science Foundation, Technology Program Room 725 4201 Wilson Blvd, Arlington, VA 22230 USA, Tel: (703)292-8580, Fax: (703)292-9085, email: erom@nsf.gov

OS21 Application and Assessment of Coastal Sediment Transport Models
Understanding the transport and fate of sediment in the coastal ocean plays an important role in many issues such as coastal erosion, pollutant transport, larval
transport, and shelf stratigraphy. Exciting efforts are underway to develop, improve, and apply numerical models of coastal sediment transport. These include regional studies of sediment transport in a variety of coastal environments, field and laboratory investigations of transport processes, assessment of sediment-transport algorithms, and incorporation of sediment-transport calculations into three-dimensional hydrodynamic models. Despite these efforts, there is not a well-tested numerical model of sediment transport, erosion, and deposition that is generally accepted by the coastal community, as there is in other disciplines such as atmospheric circulation and groundwater hydrology. Development and acceptance of a community sediment transport model would make the model a more effective tool for scientific research. This session will provide a forum for evaluating the state of coastal-sediment transport models and predictions. Papers are invited that
utilize, evaluate or improve the physics and numerics in deterministic sediment-transport models as applied to lakes, estuaries, and coastal areas.
Conveners: Courtney Harris, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, Department of Physical Sciences PO Box 1346, Gloucester Point, VA 23062-1346 USA, Tel: 804-684-7194, Fax: 804-684-7198, email: ckharris@VIMS.EDU, and Christopher Sherwood, USGS MS-999, 345 Middlefield Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 USA, Tel: 650-329-5330, email: csherwood@usgs.gov

OS22 Mariculture and Its Impacts on the Marine Environment: What We Know and What We Don’t
Marine aquaculture is rapidly expanding throughout many regions around the world and the current and long-term environmental impacts of this activity are of
widespread concern. We invite abstracts from people involved in this important, multi-disciplinary field and we plan to put together a session that will highlight some of the recent findings and ongoing research activities related to mariculture impacts.
Conveners: Dror Angel, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept of Civil and Environmental Engineering 77 Massachusetts Ave , Cambridge, MA 02139
USA, Tel: 617-258-6835, email: dror@mit.edu, and Marianne Holmer, Odense University, Institute of Biology SDU, Campusvej 55 DK-5230 Odense M,
Denmark, , DNK, email: holmer@biology.sdu, and Marina Cabrini, University of Trieste, Labratory of Marine Biology 54 Via Auguste Piccard , Santa Croce,
34010 ITA, email: cabrini@univ.trieste.it

OS23 Synthesis of Pacific Ocean Carbon Cycle Research
Several recent WOCE and JGOFS synthesis efforts have been focusing on the Pacific Ocean. In addition, there is a growing collection of time-series and ship of pportunity data that suggest that the Pacific is a dynamic and variable environment that is still not well understood today. International organizations, like JGOFS, PICES, and GLOBEC, have been working to understand changes in the physics and biogeochemistry of the North Pacific and the relations to recent shifts in the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Many of the observational studies have been complimented by regional and global modeling efforts. These studies are yielding new insights into the regional distribution of natural and anthropogenic carbon as well as other important biogeochemical processes in the Pacific. We invite the contribution of papers analyzing observations or model results in the context of the regional to basin-scale ocean carbon cycle in the Pacific. Contributions on non-carbon tracers are encouraged if they relate to processes or relations that are important to the carbon cycle. Papers may focus on past, present, or future functioning of the Pacific carbon cycle, and may employ any level of model complexity or model/data association.
Conveners: Richard Feely, NOAA/Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, 7600 Sand Point Way NE , Seattle, WA 98115 USA, Tel: 206-526-4809, Fax: 206-526-6744, email: sabine@pmel.noaa.gov, and Richard Feely, NOAA/Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, 7600 Sand Point Way NE , Seattle, WA 98115 USA, Tel: 206-526-6214, Fax: 206-526-6744, email: feely@pmel.noaa.gov

OS24 Western Pacific Marginal Seas
The marginal seas of the western Pacific Ocean contain varied circulation and biological systems, with varied impact on the open Pacific, and with importance as relatively small and hence accessible "laboratories" for understanding general physical and biological processes. Each of the marginal seas affects the Pacific Ocean in a unique way through its water mass properties, effects on Pacific boundary currents, and chemical and biological processes. Intensive projects have been carried out recently on dense water formation and its fate in the Okhotsk Sea; on polyna formation in the Bering Sea; circulation, dense water formation, acoustical and optical properties, and biological characteristics of the Japan (East) Sea and the South and East China Seas. Papers are solicited in all aspects of physical, optical, biological, chemical and paleo oceanography, including both observational and modeling work. Papers are welcome on both processes inherent to the marginal seas and also on their connection with the Pacific Ocean.
Conveners: Steve Ramp, Naval Postgraduate School, , , USA, email: sramp@nps.navy.mil, and Kay I. Ohshima, Hokkaido University, Institute of Low Temperature Science Japan, , JPN, email: ohshima@lowtem.hokudai.ac.jp, and Lynne Talley, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San
Diego 9500 Gilman Drive, Dept. 0230, La Jolla, CA 92093-0230 USA, Tel: 858-534-6610, email: ltalley@ucsd.edu

OS25 Multidisciplinary Ocean Observations and Observatories
For centuries oceanographers have relied upon ships and expeditions to collect the data needed for developing an understanding of the oceans, surface meteorology and the underlying solid Earth. While the expeditionary approach has served us well, it is now clear that understanding transients and change over the many time and spatial scales at which they are found is difficult, sometimes impossible, using infrequent campaigns. A new paradigm in oceanography has arisen which centers around a permanent presence in the global and coastal ocean for collecting data over extended, super-decadal time scales. This revolution in oceanography will exploit technologies ranging from drifters and gliders to fixed observatories or moorings. Nearly continuous communication through radio, satellites and fiber optical networks will be required. This special session seeks to review the current status of programs throughout AGU's global scope now developing as elements of a long-term global ocean observing system and, most importantly, to set the stage for the next twenty years of ocean observations and observatories.
Conveners: John Orcutt, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, 9500 Gillman Drive, Dept. 0225, La Jolla, CA 92093-0225 USA, Tel: 858-534-2887, email:
jorcutt@igpp.ucsd.edu, and Tommy Dickey, University of California, Santa Barbara, , Santa Barbara, CA USA, , and Steve Riser, University of Washington, , Seattle, WA USA, , and Bob Weller, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, , Woods Hole, MA USA, , and Stan Wilson, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, , , USA,

OS26 Scientific Communication, Publishing, and Libraries: What Lies Ahead?
The structure of scientific communication is undergoing fundamental change. New e-journal, portal, and non-traditional publishing announcements are arriving at an ever-quickening pace. While easy to ignore, these announcements are harbingers of a future that is being shaped today. Scientific societies, scientists, commercial publishers and librarians should respond to these changes in >positive ways while preserving the scientific method, intellectual property rights, and centrality of libraries to scientific information. A distinguished panel of stakeholders will debate issues ranging from benefits and risks of non-traditional publishing opportunities, to whether scientific information should be freely available after six months, to how scientists and librarians will be affected and what actions can be taken to influence the future direction of scientific communication.
Conveners: Eleanor Uhlinger, MBL/WHOI Library, , Woods Hole, MA 02543 USA, , and Joan Parker, Librarian Moss Landing Marine Laboratories and the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, , , CA USA,

OS27 Physics and Biology of Antarctic Continental Shelf Waters
During the past decade several research programs have focused on the physical and biological oceanography of Antarctic continental shelf waters. Results from these show that 1) the Antarctic shelf region provides a habitat that supports a diverse and productive biological food web and 2)the hydrography and circulation of the Antarctic shelf regions is complex and is linked to variability in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. Recent interest has focused on identifying and understanding the physical and biological processes of the Antarctic continental shelf waters that are ongoing in the austral winter. Of particular interest are those processes that determine sea ice concentration and extent, winter primary and secondary production, and winter distribution and foraging ecology of top predator populations. This special session is designed to provide a forum for the exchange of information resulting from these recent programs. Papers that consider 1) linkages between regional physical and biological phenomena, 2) overwintering strategies of plankton and top predator populations, 3) observations of physical processes which influence the physical and biological environments (e.g., cross-frontal exchanges, turbulent mixing), 4) sea ice physics, and 5) sea ice production are especially encouraged.
Conveners: Dan Costa, University of California, Santa Cruz, Department of Biology , Santa Cruz, CA 95064 USA, Tel: 831-459-2786, Fax: 831-459-4882, email: costa@biology.ucsc.edu, and Jose Torres, University of South Florida, Department of Marine Science 140 Seventh Avenue South, St. Petersburg, FL 3370 USA, Tel: 727-553-1169, Fax: 727-553-3966, email: jtorres@marine.usf.edu, and Peter Wiebe, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Woods Hole , Department of Biology , Woods Hole, MA 02543 USA, Tel: 508-289-2313, Fax: 508-457-2134, email: pwiebe@whoi.edu, and Eileen E. Hofmann, Old Dominion University, Center for Coastal Physical Oceanography , Norfolk, VA 23529 USA, Tel: 757-683-5334, Fax: 757-683-5550, email: hofmann@ccpo.odu.edu

OS28 Stratified Coastal and Estuarine Circulation
Density stratification plays a critical role in the dynamics of circulation and property distributions on the inner continental shelf and in shallow shelf seas, straits, and estuaries. Recent work highlights the importance of stratification and associated horizontal density gradients to frontogenesis, internal tides, baroclinic exchange, secondary circulation, vertical and lateral dispersion and mixing, tidal rectification, and topographic effects. Knowledge of mechanisms that regulate the competition of wind-driven and tidal mixing with atmospheric and riverine inputs of buoyancy to determine stratification is rapidly advancing. This session provides a forum to present new observational, numerical, laboratory, and theoretical results on stratified coastal and estuarine flows.
Conveners: Bob Chant, Rutgers University, Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, New Brunswick, NJ 08901 USA, Tel: 732-932-7120, email:
chant@imcs.rutgers.edu, and Dan Codiga, University of Connecticut, Department of Marine Sciences, Groton, CT 06340 USA, Tel: 860-405-9165, email: d.codiga@uconn.edu

OS29 Quantification and Regionalization of Benthic Flux Rates: Implications for Ocean Budgets
Early diagenetic processes in marine sediments are an important factor in terms of retardation and regeneration of organic matter, CaCO3 and opal, thus controlling the recycling of major elements playing a key role in the global carbon cycle. Sediments between the coastal zone and the open ocean are generally characterized by a decrease in spatial and temporal variability of turnover rates of organic carbon decay and a decrease in the diversity of transport and reaction processes. For this reason a number of global studies are available that adequately predict quantitative rates and fluxes at the sediment-water interface for open ocean environments, but, due to their heterogeneity, predictions for continental margins regions are mostly sparse or inaccurate. Approaches that take into account regional aspects like lateral sediment advection or oceanographic conditions are therefore highly demanded. This session is intended to highlight recent studies developing empirical, statistical, or
model approaches in order to achieve more reliable assessments of exchange processes at the benthic boundary layer.
Conveners: Matthias Zabel, Fachbereich Geowissenschaften Universität Bremen, Fachbereich Geowissenschaften Universität Bremen, Klagenfurter Str., D-28359 Bremen , , DEU, Tel: 49/421/2183392, Fax: 49/421/2184321, email: mzabel@uni-bremen.de, and Christian Hensen, Fachbereich Geowissenschaften Universität
Bremen , Klagenfurter Str., D-28359 Bremen, , DEU, Tel: 49/421/2183967, Fax: 49/421/2184321, email: hensen@uni-bremen.de

OS30 Biogeoinformatics: Challenges at the Intersection of Biological, Biogeochemical, and Physical Data Over Multiple Scales of Space and Time
1. Integrating temporal data: relating diverse data that vary on scales of months to decades. 2. Integrating spatial data: comparing and combining data with different inherent spatial scales and precisions. Justification: Issues of global change and the biodiversity crisis have focused attention on assessment of habitat quality, organism abundance and distribution, and biogeochemical function. Investigating these issues requires integrating data from various spatial and temporal scales and from multiple sources, using appropriate modeling and analytical approaches. This session invites presentations that cover both informatics/methodological techniques used to handle such data, and results of such analyses. Two related sub-topics will be covered in sequential sessions. One concerns organism lifetimes and habitat characteristics that are significantly affected by inter- and intra-annual variability of the environment, and how dependence of biological phenomena on environmental factors can be identified or inferred from existing or potentially available data. The other concerns relating spatial patterns in the distribution of species, community types, and other biological phenomena -- which are typically sparse "point" data -- to data about the physicochemical environment -- which are typically continuous, and are defined, measured, or reported at scales from very local to hundreds of kilometers. Methodological challenges include use of data at different spatial scales and with different levels of accuracy and precision, combining electronic data with those derived from the print medium, and use of proxies and inference as well as direct measurements.
Conveners: Karen Stocks, University of California, San Diego, San Diego Supercomputer Center , La Jolla, CA 92093 USA, email: kstocks@sdsc.edu, and Robert W. Buddemeier, University of Kansas, Kansas Geological Survey, , KS USA, email: buddrw@ku.edu, and Daphne G. Fautin, University of Kansas,
Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, , KS USA, email: fautin@ku.edu

OS31 Mediation of Benthic-Pelagic Coupling by Life-Cycle Patterns and Vertical Migration
Organisms that partition their time between the plankton and the benthos contribute significantly to carbon cycling in aquatic systems. However, the importance of meroplanktonic/merobenthic life history patterns and the role of vertical migration have been frequently overlooked in studies of processes that control benthic-pelagic coupling. Species composition and population dynamics of planktonic communities can change dramatically depending on the temporal and spatial scales of initiation and release from diapause, production and hatching of resting eggs or phytoplanktoncysts, and patterns of vertical migration. Physical forcing factors such as advection, turbulence, and resuspension influence the magnitude and the rate of transport of biota between the water column and benthic communities. This session provides a forum to review current ideas and information on the contribution of vertical migration and life-cycle patterns to benthic-pelagic coupling in marine and freshwater systems.
Conveners: Nancy H. Marcus, Florida State University, Department of Oceanography, Tallahassee, FL 32306 USA, Tel: 850 644-5498, Fax: 850 644-2581, email: marcus@ocean.fsu.edu, and Marie H. Bundy, Academy of Natural Sciences Estuarine Research Center, 10545 Mackall Rd, St. Leonard, MD 20685 USA, Tel: 410-586-9710, Fax: 410-586-9705, email: bundy@acnatsci.org

OS32 Air-Sea Exchange
Topics related to the exchange of momentum, heat, gases, and particles between the ocean and the atmosphere are solicited for this session. An emphasis will be on how processes control air-sea exchange. Contributions that use information on local air-sea exchange observations to ascertain global scale behavior via remote sensing or General Circulation Models are desired. Those investigators who participated in the GasEx2001 and FAIRS2000 field experiments and subsequent data interpretation are encouraged to contribute.
Conveners: Richard Feely, NOAA Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, USA, and Rik Wanninkhof, NOAA Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, , , USA, , and Andy Jessup, University of Washington, Applied Physics Laboratory, Seattle, WA USA, , and Wade McGillis, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Dept. of Applied Ocean Physics and Engineering, Woods Hole, MA 02543 USA, Tel: 508-289-3325, Fax: 508-457-2194, email: wmcgillis@whoi.edu

OS33 Satellite-Measured Ocean Color Variability in the Ocean
By February 2002, SeaWiFS will have provided over 4.5 years of continuous coverage of global ocean color fields. These data supplement those of both previous (eg CZCS and OCTS) and concurrent (eg MODIS) generations of ocean color sensors. Together, they allow unprecedented quantifications of the time and space scales of variability of chlorophyll and other bio-optical parameters and new insights into linkages between forcing and biological response. This session provides a forum to showcase advances in our understanding of geographic, temporal and spatial variability of ocean color afforded by these satellite missions, from local to basin and up to global scales.
Conveners: Andrew Thomas, School of Marine Sciences, 5741 Libby Hall, University of Maine, Orono ME 04469-5741 USA, tel: +1-207-581-4335, fax: +1-207-581-4388, e-mail: thomas@maine.edu; Charles McClain, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 970.2 Greenbelt MD 20771 USA, Tel: +1-301-286-5377, Fax: +1-301-286-1761, email: chuck@calval.gsfc.nasa.gov

OS34 Linking Modern and Past Biogenic Fluxes
Paleoceanographic studies are currently limited by uncertainties in our understanding of the linkage between ocean processes and the preservation of proxies in the geologic record while a lack of temporal context limits our understanding of current fluxes. The PAGES - JGOFS Task Team seeks to bring together present-day and paleoceanographic studies of biogenic fluxes and processes. The purpose of this session is to report new insights into biogeochemical processes gained through flux studies in the modern ocean that impinges on paleo-proxy interpretation and new insights into biogoechmical processes gained from paleoceanographic studies that document the response of the carbon cycle to forcing conditions different from those prevailing today.
Conveners: Roger Francois, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, , Woods Hole, MA 02543 USA, email: rfrancois@whoi.edu, and Richard A. Jahnke,
Skidaway Institute of Oceanography, 10 Ocean Science Circle, Savannah, GA 31411 USA, Tel: (912) 598-2491, Fax: (912) 598-2310, email:

OS35 Hyperspectral Remote Sensing of Nearshore and Open Ocean Environments
Multi-band, ocean color remote sensing instruments such as NASA's SeaWiFS and Japan's OCTS have been highly successful in mapping global and regional
surface chlorophyll distributions throughout the world's oceans. Current work in remote sensing continues to build on this success by increasing the number of bands on both satellite (e.g., MODIS) and airplane-deployed (e.g., AAHIS) sensors. We solicit papers that address hyperspectral techniques in both oceanic and nearshore environments, including, but not limited to, coral reef  identification, phytoplankton species identification, and advances in primary production estimates using hyperspectral technology. In addition, papers addressing the applications of hyperspectral data to larger questions of local and global carbon cycling, ecosystem
dynamics, and the implications of global climate are solicited.
Conveners: Carrie L. Leonard, Science and Technology Intl., 840 Richards Street Suite 124, Honolulu, HI 96813 USA, Tel: 808-441-2590, email:
cleonard@sti-hawaii.com, and Janet Campbell, University of New Hampshire, Center for Ocean Sciences , , NH USA, email: Janet.Campbell@unh.edu

OS36 Marine Microbial Genomics Session
It is clear that the technological power of high throughput sequencing has revolutionized our capabilities to examine the biochemical intricacies of organisms at the genomic level. During the last 5 years we have seen over 39 microbial genomes fully sequenced, and now stand with over 90 currently in progress. Projects are now underway to fully sequence the mouse, maze, rice and numerous biomedically important microbial genomes. Over the past 15 years we have begun to understand more about the diversity, distribution and evolution of free-living bacteria. Marine environmental microbiology, like it’s sister fields, has greatly benefited from the rapid development in molecular biological technology which has revolutionized our descriptive capabilities. Numerous microbial phylogenetic studies from a range of marine environments have revealed that less than 1% of the bacteria have been successfully cultivated, thus identifying the existence of a vast, literally unknown, microbial world. While we are gaining some insight about what members make up marine microbial communities we have very little information about their ecological function/position in the environment. The recent development of high through-put genomic sequencing technology and micro-array expression screening provides us with the opportunity to, not only discover the metabolic capacity of bacteria we currently have in culture, but of those that have eluded cultivation attempts. In
addition, with these data in hand, we will be able to relate gene sequence to ecosystem function. Investigators will be capable of addressing fundamental questions of marine ecology, including such topics as evolutionary history, genetics, biochemistry, physiology and ecology, through the examination of microbial genomic diversity and organization. The development of novel genomic methodologies will help open the “black box” of naturally occurring microbial communities that have evaded cultivation. The first Marine Microbial Genomics session was held at the ASLO meeting in Albuquerque, NM 2001.Our intent in 2002 is to continue this same philosophy and convene a special session on Marine Microbial genomics with the primary objective of inviting new investigators currently exploring these approaches to introduce the rest of the community to the efficacy of the technology. We hope that this session will continue to send a strong message to investigators and agencies alike about the current and projected needs of the marine microbial community in genomic sciences and technologies.
Conveners: Craig Cary, Univ. of Delaware, College of Marine Studies , Lewes, DE 19958-1258 USA, Tel: 302-645-4078, Fax: 302-645-4007, email:
caryc@udel.edu, and Gaspar Taroncher-Oldenburg, Princeton University, Geosciences Department Guyot Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544 USA, Tel: 609-258-5150, Fax: 609-258-0796,

OS37 The Science and Human Dimensions of Purposeful Ocean Carbon Sequestration
The accumulation of CO2 in the atmosphere could be slowed by intentionally storing additional carbon in the oceans. Proposed strategies to do this typically involve either engineered release of CO2 into the ocean interior or release of fertilizers in the surface ocean to stimulate downward transport of organic carbon. Such proposals raise a host of important and interesting scientific questions. Contributions addressing these questions are solicited, focusing on issues such as: consequences of elevated CO2 concentrations for marine biota; CO2-hydrate, droplet dissolution, and CO2-plume dynamics; relationships between fertilization and changes in export of carbon and macronutrients; long-term ecological consequences of sustained, periodic, or intermittent fertilization; experimental plans and results; controls on depth of organic carbon and nutrient remineralization; ventilation time as a function of carbon release location (remineralization or direct injection); approaches for verification of carbon sequestration and monitoring of consequences; social, economic, ethical, political, and legal dimensions.
Conveners: Ken Caldeira, DOE Center for Research on Ocean Carbon Sequestration, (DOCS), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory 7000 East Ave., L-103, Livermore, CA 94550 USA, Tel: 925-423-4191, Fax: 925-422-6388, email: kenc@llnl.gov, and Jim Bishop, DOE Center for Research on Ocean Carbon Sequestration (DOCS) , Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory MS 90-111 , Berkeley, CA 94720 USA, Tel: 510-495-2457, Fax: 510-486-5686, email: jkbishop@lbl.gov, and Terry Surles, California Energy Commission, Technology Systems Division, 1516 9th Street, Sacramento, CA 95814 USA, email: tsurles@energy.state.ca.us

OS38 Physical, Chemical, and Biological Processes Associated With Active Submarine Volcanism in the Pacific
Direct seafloor observations and sampling following eruptions at the East Pacific Rise, Juan de Fuca Ridge and Loihi Volcano south of Hawaii over the past decade have provided major new data sets on seafloor volcanism. Access to military hydrophone arrays in the Northeast Pacific in the early 1990s opened a new era in the study of active submarine volcanism. At Axial Volcano on the Juan de Fuca Ridge, an interdisciplinary team from the United States and Canada has established NeMO, a proto-observatory that studies the interrelationships between physical, chemical, and biological systems operating on the volcano. Observations of the geology, geophysics, water column, vent fluids, and macro/microbiology have taken place over five years, including before, during and after a major eruption in early 1998. In the western Pacific, on the Izu-Ogasawara (Bonin) Arc, a similar team of Japanese scientists has begun Archaean Park, a program that will drill the caldera of a hydrothermally active volcano. The first field programs there will occur in the summer of 2001. This session invites papers on the physics, chemistry, geology, and biology of active submarine volcanic processes on midocean-ridge, hotspot, intraplate, island-arc, and back-arc volcanoes in the Pacific Basin. We anticipate a
core of papers on results of the NeMO and Archaean Park programs, and solicit contributions for other active Pacific submarine volcanoes.
Conveners: Tetsuro Urabe, University of Tokyo, Dept. of Earth & Planetary Science, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku 7-3-1 113-0033, Tokyo, JPN, Tel: 81-90-7408-9641, Fax: 81-3-5841-4569, email: urabe@eps.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp, and Bob Embley, NOAA/Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, 2115 S.E. OSU Dr. Hatfield Marine Science Center, Newport, OR 97365-5258 USA, Tel: 541-867-0275, Fax: 541-867-3907, email: embley@pmel.noaa.gov

OS39 Biogeochemical Linkages Between Rapidly Urbanizing Coastal Watersheds and the Coastal Ocean
A large fraction of the human population throughout the world lives within a hundred kilometers of the coast. As the earth’s population continues to grow and people migrate to a perceived better quality of life in coastal areas, anthropogenic stresses on streams, estuaries, and coastal environments will increasingly represent forcing functions that potentially have grave consequences. Currently much of this new development is occurring in subtropical areas although temperate regions are not immune to man's advance. Because the geology, hydrography, and climate in subtropical areas differ from those in the generally better studied temperate regions, responses to anthropogenic stresses are also likely to differ in the tropics relative to temperate regions. It is therefore important to understand how differences that exist between the two climatic regions may affect aquatic biogeochemical processes. This session aims to assemble limnologists and oceanographers working in a broad range of coastal environments, whose research focuses on biogeochemical linkages between coastal watersheds and the adjoining ocean and how these are impacted by anthropogenic activity. We especially encourage contributions from scientists whose work compares and contrasts subtropical and temperate systems,
and who can identify the overarching issues faced by continued development of coastal areas.
Conveners: Eric H. De Carlo, University of Hawaii at Manoa, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology Dept. of Oceanography 1000 Pope Road MSB 509, Honolulu, HI 96822 USA, Tel: (808) 956-6473, Fax: (808) 956-9225, email: edecarlo@soest.hawaii.edu, and Khalil J. Spencer, Los Alamos National Laboratory, , , USA, , and Fred T Mackenzie, University of Hawaii, Department of Oceanography, Honolulu, HI 96822 USA, Tel: +1-808-956-6344, email: fredm@soest.hawaii.edu

OS40 Viruses in Aquatic Systems
Viruses are a diverse and dynamic component of aquatic ecosystems. They impose rates of mortality on microbial and phytoplankton populations that can exceed those inflicted by grazers. As a consequence viruses can have a major effect on nutrient cycling, as well as population and community dynamics. This session will provide a forum for results on novel viruses, the structure of viral communities and their effect on aquatic ecosystems.
Conveners: Corina Brussaard, Netherlands Institute of Sea Research, Dept. of Biological Oceanography PO Box 59 NL-1790 AB Den Burg, Texel, NLD, email: corina.brussaard@nioz.nl, and Curtis Suttle, Univ. of British Columbia, Dept. of Earth and Ocean Sciences 6270 University Blvd, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 CAN, email: csuttle@eos.ubc.ca

OS41 Bridging the Gap: From Molecular Biology to Marine Ecology
The application of molecular biological techniques to marine organisms has opened a new window to the sea and is providing us with information about marine organisms at a molecular level. However, there are still large gaps between important ecological questions and molecular data. How do we begin to bridge these gaps? For example, how do we determine which organisms identified by molecular techniques contribute significantly to a given ecological function? How do we relate inventories of functional genes (e.g., RuBisCo, nitrogenase, photosystems) to actual functional differences in biogeocehmical cycling among ecosystems. Can we reveal the links between community-level gene expression and biogeochemical cycles? Is it possible to connect in situ molecular measurements to global-scale ocean measurements obtainable by remote sensing? Contributions that address these issues, that describe new, relevant molecular techniques or efforts to link molecular and ecological databases, or that survey the state of the art are welcome.
Conveners: Eric J. Gaidos, University of Hawaii Manoa, Department of Geology & Geophysics POST 710 1680 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96822 USA, Tel: 831-459-4718, Fax: 831-459-4882, email: gaidos@gps.caltech.edu; Grieg F. Steward, University of California, Santa Cruz, Ocean Sciences Department E&MS A451 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 USA, Tel: +1-831-459-4718, Fax: +1-831-459-4882, email: gsteward@cats.ucsc.edu; and Markus G Weinbauer, Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ), Dept. of Biological Oceanography PO Box 59 1790 Ab Den Burg, Texel, NLD, Tel: +31-222-369-521, Fax: +31-222-319-674, email: wein@nioz.nl

OS42 Nutrient Dynamics in Coastal Ecosystems: Linking Physical and Biological Processes
Understanding the relative importance of natural and human-induced elevated-nutrient events on coastal ecosystems is an important global issue. As yet there are few clear answers. Considerable progress has been made in our understanding of the hydrology of coastal waters, the ecology of the organisms living in these waters and their physiology; and nutrient dynamics have been an important component in many of these studies. Yet, of these studies, few cross the traditional lines of discipline. In temperate regions, upwelling and large scale physical processes have long been shown to deliver substantial levels of nutrients to coastal ecosytems, thereby supporting high biomass communities such as kelp forests. In contrast, tropical marine communities are generally considered to be nutrient limited where they exist on tightly recycled and newly generated nutrients. However, recent research has shown that not all tropical areas conform to this paradigm. The effects of localized and large scale physical processes on tropical benthic or pelagic communities remains largely unstudied. Anthropogenic nutrient imputs in both temperate and tropical regions have often been suggested as the primary cause of large scale phase shifts in benthic marine communities. The precise role of nutrients in these ecosystem-wide changes remains largely debated. This session is intended to be a forum where researchers from a variety of disciplines present their views of how
best we can understand the real influence of elevated nutrients on coastal ecosystems. An integral part of the session is to open the floor for discussion in the form of open questions for any of the speakers in the session. We hope to break down some of the barriers between researchers traditionally working in separate fields.
Conveners: John Runcie, Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology, P.O. Box 1346, Kaneohe, HI 96744 USA, Tel: (808) 236 7477, Fax: (808) 236 7443, email:
runcie@hawaii.edu, and Jennifer Smith, University of Hawaii Manoa, 3190 Maile Way, Honolulu, HI 96822 USA, Tel: (808) 956-3943, email: jesmith@hawaii.edu

OS43 Models for Ethical Instruction in Environmental Science Curricula
There is a growing concern that our present educational training inadequately educates scientists about the theories of science and values that underlie how science is practiced. The scientific community recognizes that there are cognitive values and norms, such as scientific method, that underlie the practice of our profession. However the actual practice and capabilities of science is embedded in and structured by shared ethical and social values within the scientific community. Further, because as environmental scientists we deal with issues that can influence/affect the human environment, the values and goals of the larger society come into play in determining what and how scientists can contribute to societal decisions about the environment. It ought to be the case that the scientific community carries on a continuing rational discourse about how these values interplay. Unfortunately, undergraduate education in the humanities for science students can be absent or deficient (obtuse or superficial). The expectation that ethical principles can be instilled just as part of the mentoring process without some formal instructional foundation seems forlorn. Saying that, most scientists feel that any formal ethical instruction as part of graduate science curricula must be succinct but substantive, goal-directed yet robust, and germane yet providing basic underlying principals to the practicing scientist. To achieve this goal we need to engage the philosophers of science and ethics, but scientists themselves need to play an active part in that dialogue on how we ought to practice science. Several models of such ethical instruction in science graduate curricula are ongoing in academic institutions in the United States. This session will allow fellow scientists to describe and share their thoughts on various instructional models for teaching principles that ought to guide the ethical practice of science.
Conveners: Kenneth Tenore, UM Center for Environmental Science , Chesapeake Biological Laboratory, Solomons, MD USA, Tel: (410) 326-7241, email: tenore@cbl.umces.edu, and Paul Dayton, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego 9500 Gilman Drive, Dept. 0227, La Jolla, CA 92093-0227 USA, Tel: 858 534 6740, email: pdayton@ucsd.edu

OS44 Indian Ocean and Indonesian Throughflow Variability From Models and Observations
The anomalous event of 1997-98 has revived the interest in the Indian Ocean variability and has raised numerous questions regarding intrinsic modes of coupled variability in the region. The Indo-Pacific region is also the only link between the world's major ocean basins at low latitudes and plays a significant role in the thermohaline circulation and global heat and freshwater balance. This session invites modeling and observational (in-situ and remote sensing) studies of the Indian Ocean and the Indonesian throughflow on intraseasonal to interannual and longer time-scales. Process studies of all aspects of the Indian Ocean variability including but not limited to effects of freshwater fluxes, externally forced and internal variability of the basin or regions of the Indian Ocean such as the Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal, the Indonesian throughflow and the southern Indian Ocean are appropriate. Studies trying to address science questions relevant to CLIVAR/Monsoon and/or observational system simulation experiments aimed at recommending observational strategies and process studies are of special interest.
Conveners: Ragu Murtugudde, ESSIC/Univ of Maryland, CSS Bldg, Room 2207, College Park, MD 20742 USA, Tel: (301) 314-2622, Fax: (301) 405-8468, email: ragu@essic.umd.edu, and James T. Potemra, University of Washington, School of Oceanography Box 35535, Seattle, WA 98195-5351 USA, Tel: 206-543-5156, Fax: 206-685-3354, email: jimp@ocean.washington.edu, and Janet Sprintall, Scripps Instution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego 9500 Gilman Drive, Dept. 0230, La Jolla, CA 92093-0230 USA, Tel: 858-822-0589, Fax: 858-534-9820, email: janet@beqa.ucsd.edu

OS45 The North Atlantic Ocean and Its Changing Climate
Several large and a number of smaller international and national programs in the North Atlantic Ocean have taken place in the past decade and the time seems
appropriate to review what new information has been gathered about the general circulation and the nature of its decadal and longer time scale changes. Local and
remote forcing mechanisms have provided agents for change in the water masses and circulation, both in the interior of the basin and within the surface and deep
western boundary currents. While our focus is on the mid- to high- latitudes, a topic of special interest is the changing properties of the Deep Western Boundary Current from the northern overflows to the equator.
Conveners: Bob Dickson, CFEAS, The Laboratory, Pakefield Road, Lowestoft Suffolk, NR33 OHT GBR, Tel: 44-1502-524282, Fax: 44-1502-513865, email:
r.r.dickson@cefas.co.uk, and Terrence M. Joyce, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 360 Woods Hole Rd., Mail Stop 21, Woods Hole, MA 02543 USA, Tel: 508-289-2530, Fax: 508-457-2181, email: tjoyce@whoi.edu, and Jens Meincke, Universitat Hamburg, Inst. fur Meereskunde Troplowitzstrasse 7, Hamburg, D-22529 DEU, Tel: 49-40-42838-5985, Fax: 49-40-5605724,, email: meincke@ifm.uni-hamburg.de

OS46 Equatorial Oceanography
This session will focus on observations, theory and modelling of the tropical oceans, including both the mean circulation and time dependent flows. Seasonal to interannual variability is of great interest because of the demonstrated predictability of El Nino. Longer time scales and the connection between the tropics and subtropics are also receiving more attention now. The ENSO Observing System is providing a wealth of new data, stimulating both new theoretical ideas and modelling studies.
Conveners: Dennis Moore, NOAA /PMEL, Ocean Climate Research Division 7600 Sand Point Way, Seattle, WA 98115 USA, Tel: 206-526-4146, email:
dmoore@pmel.noaa.gov, and Michael McPhaden, NOAA/ PMEL, 7600 Sand Point Way, Seattle, WA 98115 USA, Tel: 206-526-6783, email:

OS47 Marine Ecosystem Responses to Climate: The Responses of Large Marine Ecosystems to Interdecadal-Scale Climate Variability
This session will examine the responses of large marine ecosystems to interdecadal-scale climate variability. Speakers will discuss how interdecadal modes of climate variability interact over a broad range of spatial scales to impact the coupled physical and biological processes at work in large marine ecosystems. Results from retrospective analyses of time-series data, recent field studies, and numerial modeling will be presented, with a special focus on population, community and ecosystem responses to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). While our primary goal is to improve the oceanographic community's understanding of ecosystem responses to natural climate variability, a related goal is to provoke new ideas and conceptual models to help us better predict the responses of large marine ecosystems to global climate change.
Conveners: Charles Green, Cornell University, Department of Earth & Atmospheric Sciences 2130 Snee Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-2701 USA, Tel: (607) 255-5449, Fax: (607) 254-4780, email: chg2@cornell.edu, and Michael Fogarty, NMFS EASC, 166 Water St., Woods Hole, MA 02543-1026 USA, Tel: (508)495-2000, Fax: (508)495-2258, email: Michael.Fogarty@noaa.gov, and Nathan Mantua, University of Washington, Deptartment of Atmospheric Sciences JISAO: the Joint Institute for the Study of the Atmosphere and Oceans Box 354235 , Seattle, WA 98195-4235 USA, Tel: 206-616-5347, Fax: 206-616-5775, email: mantua@atmos.washington.edu

OS48 Recent Advances in Understanding Submarine Biosystems and the Future in Submergence Research
The use of submersibles (like the Alvin) and remotely operated vehicles provides a mechanism by which the marine biologist and geochemist can perform field work in extreme environments, collect samples, run experiments, and establish observatories on the sea floor and in the water column. This session will highlight recent advances in marine biology and geochemistry as pertains to systems investigated with these submergence vehicles including ridge crest studies, convergent and passive margin studies and research in the water column. Presentations on upgrades to existing vehicles and projected uses for the future will provide attendees with up-to-date information on the state of the art in submergence vehicles and systems. There will also be an opportunity for scientists to exchange feedback with other users of these vehicles and systems and with facility operators.
Conveners: Patricia Fryer, University of Hawaii, SOEST / Planetary Geosciences 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822 USA, Tel: (808) 956-3416, Fax: (808) 956-3122, email: pfryer@soest.hawaii.edu, and Shirley Pomponi, HBOI, 5600 U.S. 1 North , Fort Pierce, FL 34946 USA, Tel: (561) 465-2400 x449, email: pomponi@hboi.edu, and Anna-Louise Reysenbach, Portland State University, Dept. of Environmental Biology P.O. Box 751, Portland, OR 97207-0751 USA, Tel: (503) 725-3864, Fax: (503) 725-3888, email: reysenbacha@pdx.edu

OS49 Oceanic Time-Series Measurements: Assessment of the Past and Planning for the Future
Starting with the first oceanic time-series program, Hydrostation S, and followed by the BATS, HOT, CARIACO and other time-series studies, our understanding of the complex biogeochemical processes that occur in the surface ocean has increased exponentially. With 12+ years of biogeochemical data collected at BATS and HOT, questions related to the longer-term oceanic response to climate variability are now being robustly tested. The goals of this special session are two-fold. First, to highlight the past temporal dynamics of ocean biogeochemical processes, and second to emphasize how these time-series measurements have changed our understanding of oceanic systems and will impact future science programs. To this end, we encourage the submission of all papers exploring temporal dynamics of oceanic biogeochemistry, including new insights into the functioning of oceanic ecosystems.
Conveners: Michael W. Lomas, Bermuda Biological Station for Research, Inc.,, Ferry Reach, St. George''''s GE01, , , BMU, Tel: 441-297-1880 x303), email: mlomas@bbsr.edu, and Nicholas R. Bates, Bermuda Biological Station for Research, Inc.,, Ferry Reach, St. George''s GE01, , , BMU, Tel: 441-297-1880 X 311, email: nick@bbsr.edu, and Dave Karl, University of Hawaii, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, , Honolulu, HI 96822 USA, Tel: 808-956-8964, email: dkarl@soest.hawaii.edu, and John Dore, University of Hawaii, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, Honolulu, HI 96822 USA, Tel: 808-956-6775, email: jdore@soest.hawaii.edu

OS50 New Insights Into the Ecology of Pelagic Animals From Applications of Electronic Tags
Exciting new insights into the migration, foraging, and diving behavior of many large pelagic fishes, mammals, birds, and turtles are being revealed with applications of electronic tags. These tags collect and store detailed information over periods of months to years on the position and depth of the animal, and in some cases environmental or physiological data, which then are either transmitted via satellite link or downloaded upon recovery of the animal. To further understand how the tagged animal utilizes the ocean environments, the tagging data are merged with information on the environment surrounding the animal obtained from satellite remote sensing or shipboard surveys. The goal of this session is to bring together researchers using electronic tags on a variety of animals to discuss their approaches and findings. We believe there will be common interest in the various analytical approaches used and quite possibly significant generalities regarding migration, foraging habitat, and dive behavior will emerge for a range of species. This session will encourage dialog between the biologists with data on animal dynamics and oceanographers with insights into ocean dynamics in the region of the tracks.
Conveners: Jeffrey Polovina, NMFS, Honolulu Laboratory, 2870 Dole St., Honolulu, HI 96822-2396 USA, Tel: 808-983-5390, email:
Jeffrey.Polovina@noaa.gov, and George Boehlert, NOAA, NMFS, PFEL,, 1352 Lighthouse Ave., Pacific Grove, CA 93950-2097 USA, Tel: 831-648-8447, email: George.Boehlert@noaa.gov

OS51 Research Experiences of Undergraduates in Ocean Sciences" (Posters Only)
Armed with the strength of a content-based learning background, many undergraduates are drawn to the allure of oceanographic discovery and global-scale process studies. Their inquisitive nature is the target of NSF-OCE "Research Experience for Undergraduates" programs as well as a variety of ad hoc, local, and regional opportunities. Among these fellows are a selection of excited, disciplinarily-diverse students, usually in their senior year, searching for the next step. Poster presentations are solicited in all fields of oceanography that showcase the exceptional level of research conducted by undergraduates. This session will provide an excellent forum for interaction among potential graduate recruits and active research scientists.
Conveners: Russell L. Cuhel, Great Lakes WATER Institute, Center for Great Lakes Studies, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 600 E. Greenfield Ave., Milwaukee, WI 53204 USA, FAX: +1-414-382-1705, E-mail: rcuhel@uwm.edu Tel: +1-414-382-1711; Carmen Aguilar, Great Lakes WATER Institute, Center for Great Lakes Studies, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 600 E. Greenfield Ave., Milwaukee, WI 53204 USA, Tel: +1-414-382-1755, FAX: +1-414-382-1705, email: Aguilar@UWM.EDU.