2000 Ocean Sciences Meeting Special Session Descriptions


Education (E)

E01   Innovations in Ocean Science Education
Innovative approaches to teaching, technological advances, and emerging research on how students learn are all factors changing the traditional science classroom. This session offers a chance to present new developments in ocean science education, including use of new technologies (Websites, virtual and collaborative environments, distance learning, etc.), integration of research into the classroom, and new materials and curricula. Education programs which incorporate an evaluation of curricula and/or assessment of student learning are encouraged. The primary focus will be on applications to secondary and undergraduate ocean sciences education.

Conveners: Elizabeth Rom, Oceanographic Technology Program, Room 725, National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Blvd., Arlington, VA 22204, Phone: +1-703-306-1585 ext. 7225, Fax: +1-703-306-0390, E-mail: erom@nsf.gov; and Elizabeth Smith, Center for Coastal Physical Oceanography, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529, Phone: +1-757-683-5567, Fax: +1-757-683-5550, E-mail: lizsmith@ccpo.odu.edu

E02   Undergraduate Research Projects
A special poster session for undergraduate research projects.

Convener: Russell L. Cuhel, Associate Scientist, Great Lakes WATER Institute Center for Great Lakes Studies, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 600 E. Greenfield Avenue, Milwaukee, WI 53204, Phone: +1-414-382-1711, Fax: +1-414-382-1705, E-mail: rcuhel@uwm.edu

E03   Inquiry Based Learning in Undergraduate Marine Science Education
This session will include presentations focusing on innovative, inquiry-based, marine science instruction. The methodology of active learning in college science courses provides students with a context-rich knowledge base and the skills necessary to find meaningful solutions to scientific/environmental problems. Exposing undergraduate students to inquiry-based, research oriented, learning experiences produces well-prepared introductory-level graduate students and a more scientifically literate general population. Presentation topics include integrating research experiences and inquiry-based learning techniques into marine science courses/curricula; problem-based learning in large and small classes; tools for assessing inquiry based learning; student and faculty responses to active learning techniques; developing partnerships between active research programs and undergraduate education; using mathematical models to promote active learning; the role of internships; strategies for enhancing interdisciplinary learning; integration of career guidance, counseling, and peer mentoring in the learning setting; and the use of technology in promoting active learning (such as distance learning, remote sensing, spreadsheets).

Convener: Jane L. Guentzel and Susan M. Libes, Coastal Carolina University, Department of Marine Science, PO Box 261954, Conway, SC 29528-6054, Phone: +1-843-349-2374 (Guentzel), +1-843-349-2218 (Libes), E-mail: jguentze@coastal.edu, susan@coastal.edu

E04   Ocean Science Education: Innovative Career Strategies
Recommendations set forth in a recent National Research Council (NRC) report highlight the need for traditional science Ph.D.s to retool their skill sets for a changing job market. This report generated a flurry of discussion in both Science and Nature. This special session will address the NRC recommendations and the subsequent dialogue with respect to ways ocean science faculty at all institutions could help to create opportunities for strong scientists to pursue careers that combine research and science education in innovative ways. The session will include the following topics: (1) bridging the gap between the ocean sciences and science education (new career opportunities?), (2) preparing graduate students to better assume the responsibilities of faculty in a changing academic arena, and (3) tools for a collaborative and interactive approach to teaching ocean sciences at all levels, especially what does and does not work.

Conveners: Jennifer Cherrier, Environmental Sciences Institute, Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University, 1520 South Bronough Street, Tallahassee, FL 32307-6600, Phone: +1-850-561-2134, Fax: +1-850-561-2248, E-mail until 9/99: jcherrie@mailer.fsu.edu, E-mail after 9/99: cherrier@famu.edu; Dean McManus, School of Oceanography, University of Washington, Box 357940, Seattle, WA 98195-7940, Phone: +1-206-543-0587, Fax: +1-206-543-6073, E-mail: mcmanus@ocean.washington.edu; and Nancy Marcus, Department of Oceanography, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306, Phone: +1-850-644-5498, Fax: +1-850-644-2581, Email: marcus@ocean.fsu.edu

Ocean Sciences (OS)

OS01   Indonesian Throughflow: Mean and Low-Frequency Characteristics, and Importance to the Global Climate
The need to understand the role of the Indonesian throughflow in global climate has come to the fore, as controversy over its magnitude (estimates had ranged from less than a million cubic meters per second (equal to 1 Sverdrup, or Sv) in inverse models to nearer to 20 Sv in general circulation models) has been somewhat quelled by recent direct current meter measurements, which give annual mean transports between 5 and 10 Sv, though the extent of the interannual, annual, and intraseasonal throughflow variability remains poorly resolved. The resultant heat and freshwater fluxes into the Indian Ocean at the expense of the Pacific may affect atmosphere-ocean coupling, with potential impacts on the El Niņo-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and monsoon phenomena. Both models and observations show considerable variability in transport, and so in fluxes, on interannual, annual, and intraseasonal timescales, but their relevance is unknown. We know that ocean models with and without a mean throughflow give very different heat contents for the Indian Ocean, but we do not know if throughflow variability is relevant because of its influence or as a measure of effect. For example, is long-term variability in the throughflow just an integrated measure of climate change in the Pacific, or does the importance of its variability lie in its effect on the Indian Ocean and beyond? We invite contributions: (1) which provide new information on the throughflow and its variability; (2) on modeling and data analyses which demonstrate links between throughflow variability and well-known climate phenomena; (3) which show how models can be used to maximize the information provided by limited observations; and (4) which show best how to exploit the limited observations in improving model studies.

Conveners: Arnold L. Gordon, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Palisades, NY 10964-8000, Phone: +1-914-365-8325, Fax: +1-914-365-8157, E-mail: agordon@ldeo.columbia.edu; and Roxana C. Wajsowicz, Department of Meteorology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2425, Phone: +1-301-405-5396, Fax: +1-301-314-9482, E-mail: roxana@atmos.umd.edu

OS02   Recent Advances in Ocean and Fresh Water Science Instrumentation (POSTER SESSION ONLY)
Progress in the ocean and aquatic sciences is often coupled to the development of new instrumentation. The usefulness of new instrumentation or observational capabilities may also extend beyond its immediately intended application. This poster session provides an opportunity for scientists, engineers, and students to present newly developed instrumentation or technology that would be of interest to a diverse audience of ocean and freshwater science investigators. It is also an opportunity to more fully describe the instrumentation used to collect data and research results that are presented elsewhere at the meeting.

Convener: H. Lawrence Clark, Oceanographic Technology Program, Room 725, National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Boulevard, Arlington, VA 22230, Phone: +1-703-306-1584, Fax: +1-703-306-0390, E-mail: hclark@nsf.gov

OS03   Cross Margin Transport in the Great Lakes and Coastal Oceans
An interdisciplinary approach is required to investigate the causes and effects of cross-margin transport in large lakes and the coastal ocean. Coastal jets, nearshore thermal structures, and river outflows can contribute to establishing distinct nearshore environments. How do physical, chemical, and biological processes combine to maintain nearshore communities? By what processes do materials cross the margin into the offshore environment? Contributions are sought on observational, modeling, or theoretical aspects of cross-margin transport of momentum, energy, solutes, particulates, and organisms in the Great Lakes or coastal oceans. Particular attention will be paid to how changes in vertical stratification (due to seasonal influences, changing wind direction, or buoyancy forcing) influence cross-margin transport.

Conveners: Sarah A. Green, Chemistry Department, Michigan Technological University, 1400 Townsend Drive, Houghton, MI 49931, Phone: +1-906-487-3419, Fax: +1-906-487-2061, E-mail: sgreen@mtu.edu; and Elise Ralph, Large Lakes Observatory (LLO), RLB 207, University of Minnesota, 2205 East 5th Street, Duluth, MN 55812 USA, Tel: +1-218-726-7627, Fax: +1-218-726-6979, E-mail: eralph@d.umn.edu

OS04   Continental Margin Biogeochemical Fluxes
The purpose of this special session is to better define the role of continental margins (including continental shelves, coastal zones with strong eastern or western boundary currents, marginal seas, polar margins, and tropical coasts) in the global carbon cycle. Papers may describe observational or modeling studies of biogeochemical fluxes related to the carbon cycle at continental margins or processes that control these fluxes. The outcome is expected to better depict processes controlling carbon sequestration at continental margins, to improve estimation of these carbon fluxes, to provide more realistic boundary conditions for global ocean carbon models, and to reveal major gaps that future field programs need to address.

Conveners: Kon-Kee Liu, Institute of Oceanography, National Taiwan University, E-mail: kkliu@ccms.ntu.edu.tw; Larry P. Atkinson, Center for Coastal Physical Oceanography, Old Dominion University, E-mail: atkinson@ccpo.odu.edu; and Peter H. Burkill, Plymouth Marine Laboratory, E-mail: phb@wpo.nerc.ac.uk

OS05   Physical Processes and Optical Properties in the Coastal Ocean
Contributions are solicited which address the relationship between physical processes and variability of optically active material in the coastal ocean. Vertical mixing is thought to play a significant role in controlling the distribution of optically active matter in the coastal environment. Thus phenomena which may contribute to vertical mixing, such as atmospheric forcing, tides, internal waves and surface waves, as well as direct measurements of turbulent dissipation, are of particular interest. Recent advances in optical instrumentation and techniques have resulted not only in higher spatial and temporal resolution of observed optical properties, but also in improvements in the partitioning of optically active material and the discrimination of its source. Presentation of results from the recently completed Coastal Mixing and Optics field program are expected, but the contribution of relevant results from any source is encouraged.

Conveners: Al Plueddemann, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, MS-29, 360 Woods Hole Road, Woods Hole, MA 02543-1541, Phone: +1-508-457-2000, ext. 2789, Fax: +1-508-457-2181, E-mail: aplueddemann@whoi.edu; and Heidi Sosik, Biology Department, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543-1049 USA, Phone: +1-508-289-2311, E-mail: hsosik@whoi.edu

OS06   The New, Improved Marine N Cycle
A variety of recent observations in isotope and nutrient geochemistry and marine ecology are prompting a reevaluation of our understanding of the marine N cycle, particularly with respect to the importance of primary inputs and sinks, its variability over short (annual to decadal) timescales, the qualitative and quantitative importance of key pathways over glacial-interglacial periods, and the interaction of the marine N cycle with oceanic C cycling and global climate. The session will emphasize observations and anomalies directly bearing on the marine N cycle, our current understanding at regional to global scales, the implications of coupling with carbon and other elements, and modeling and predictive capabilities in the near (decadal-centennial) future.

Conveners: Douglas G. Capone, Department of Biological Sciences and The Wrigley Institute for Environmental Studies, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-0371, Phone: +1-213-740-2772 (office) or +1-213-740-5782 (lab), E-mail: capone@usc.edu, and Chesapeake Biological Laboratory, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, Solomons, MD 20688-0038, Phone: +1-410-326-7250, Fax: +1-410-326-7341, E-mail: capone@cbl.umces.edu; and Anthony F. Michaels, Wrigley Institute for Environmental Studies, University of Southern California, AHF 232, Los Angeles, CA 90089-0371, Phone: +1-213-740-6780, Fax: +1-213-740-6720, Email: tony@usc.edu

OS07   What Factors Control Phytoplankton Processes in the Southern Ocean?
The iron hypothesis of John Martin provided a conceptual framework linking the magnitude of oceanic iron supply with the lowering of atmospheric CO2 levels via algal carbon fixation. Although this hypothesis was based on paleo-oceanographic records from the Southern Ocean, the majority of experiments (both deckboard and in situ) investigating the effects of iron supply on phytoplankton processes have taken place in the equatorial and NE subarctic Pacific. These experiments have shown unequivocally that iron supply plays a major role in controlling phytoplankton growth rate and species composition in both of these high-nitrate low-chlorophyll (HNLC) regions. Modeling studies indicate that the Southern Ocean is thought to play a disproportionate role with respect to the potential sequestration of carbon to the deep ocean, yet there is still debate about what factors control phytoplankton processes in this region. Recently, experiments by research groups from the United States, Europe, and Australasia have been conducted in the Southern Ocean to examine the effects of iron supply, iron and silicate supply, and iron supply and light climate on phytoplankton processes in the Southern Ocean. These deckboard experiments have taken place both north (HN-low Silicate-LC) and south (HNLC) of the Polar Front (PF), and within different oceanic sectors of the Southern Ocean (Atlantic, Pacific, Ross Sea). Furthermore, an in situ iron fertilization experiment was performed in austral summer in the Australasian sector of the Southern Ocean. The aim of this session is to compare and contrast the findings of such experiments in order to assess what factors control phytoplankton processes in the Southern Ocean and whether such modes of control vary temporally (with season) or spatially (different oceanic sectors, north or south of the PF).

Conveners: Philip Boyd, Niwa Centre for Chemical and Physical Oceanography, Department of Chemistry, University of Otago, Dunedin 9001, New Zealand, Phone: +64-3-479-5249, Fax: +64-3-479-5248, E-mail: pboyd@alkali.otago.ac.nz; Andrew J. Watson, School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, U.K., Phone: +44-1603- 593761 or +44-1603-45616, Fax: +44-603-507719, E-mail: a.watson@uea.ac.uk; Cliff Law, Biogas/Tracer Group, Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Centre for Coastal and Marine Science, Prospect Place, The Hoe, Plymouth, Devon PL1 3DH, UK, Phone: +44-01752-633439 or +44-01752-633100, Fax: +44-01752-633101, E-mail: C.Law@pml.ac.uk; and Kenneth Coale, Moss Landing Marine Labs, PO Box 450, Moss Landing, CA 95039, Phone: +1-408-775-8671, Fax: +1-408-753-2826, E-mail: coale@mlml.calstate.edu

OS08   Weather and the Amount and Fate of Production in the Ocean
The effects of climate are mediated by the interaction of weather and physical and biological processes in the ocean. Mechanisms include wind mixing that affects the upper mixed layer depth and the dispersion of organisms in the upper water column, variations in light availability as modified by ice and cloud cover, and sea temperature. The effects of these variables, though usually bottom-up, can also be top-down when temperature affects rates of predator development or when wind stirring affects prey selection or capture by predators. We seek a set of papers that address the mechanisms by which weather, or climate, affects the rates or amount of primary production and its fate, both from a bottom-up and top-down perspective. Understanding of these mechanisms is an important component of predicting the effects of global change.

Conveners: George L. Hunt, Jr., 4944 Vista Way, Friday Harbor, WA 98250, Phone: +1-360-378-6748, E-mail: glhunt@uci.edu; and Jeffrey M. Napp, NOAA/NMFS/AFSC, BIN C15700, Building 4, 7600 Sand Point Way, NE, Seattle, WA 98115-0070, Phone: +1-206-526-4148, Fax: +1-206-526-6723, E-mail: jnapp@afsc.noaa.gov

OS09   Ocean Sciences of the Californias and the Intra-Americas Sea (IAS)
All topics in the ocean sciences of the Californias (i.e., California Current System and Gulf of California regime) and the IAS (Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea, Straits of Florida, and the adjacent North Atlantic to 55W regime) are welcome, especially those of a cooperative (binational or multinational) and multidisciplinary nature. Most appropriate are contributions to the understanding of the physical, chemical, geological, and ecological systems of these regional regimes.

Conveners: Elva Escobar, Benthic Ecology Laboratory, Department of Ocean and Coastal Systems, Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia, A.P. 70-305, 04510 Mexico City, Mexico, Phone: +52-5622-5835, Fax: +52-5616-0748, E-mail: escobri@mar.icmyl.unam.mx; and Christopher N. K. Mooers, OPRC/AMP, University of Miami, 4600 Rickenbacker Causeway, Miami, FL 33149-1098, Phone: +1-305-361-4088 or 4825, Fax: +1-305-361-4701, E-mail: cmooers@rsmas.miami.edu

OS10   Mixing and Transport in Lakes: Physical Processes and Biological and Chemical Consequences
In the last decade, field and laboratory experiments coupled with numerical modeling have led to new and more detailed understanding of the physical processes occurring in lakes. These insights have allowed the design of field experiments to better understand the connections between lake physics, biology, geology, and chemistry. This session will provide a format to present new results on physical processes occurring in lakes, as well as interdisciplinary studies designed to examine the consequences of transport and mixing on geologic, chemical, and biological processes.

Convener: Heidi Nepf, MIT, 48-425, Cambridge, MA 02139, Phone: +1-617-253-8622, Fax: +1-617-258-7009, E-mail: hmnepf@mit.edu

OS11   Global Ocean Deepwater Circulation: Past, Present, and Future
The session will provide a forum to discuss observations and modeling that portray the details of the global ocean thermohaline circulation long-term variability and its impact on global climate. The session will combine discussion of paleoclimatic and paleoceanographic reconstructions with the modeling efforts to consider the past and future colder and warmer climates and will offer an opportunity to synthesize the results for gaining a new momentum in studying millennial-scale ocean and climate variability. Observational, proxy data, modeling, and synthesizing papers addressing any aspect of the ocean circulation variability and sea surface conditions during the Pleistocene and modeling inspired projections to a future climate will be welcomed.

Conveners: Dan Seidov, Earth System Science Center, Penn State University, 508 Deike Building, University Park, PA 16802, Phone: +1-814-865-1921, E-mail: dseidov@essc.psu.edu; Thomas Stocker, Climate and Environmental Physics, University of Ber, E-mail: stocker@climate.unibe.ch; and Mark Maslin, Environmental Change Research Centre, Department of Geography, University College London, E-mail: mmaslin@geography.ucla.ac.uk

OS12   Mechanisms and Rates of Microbial Mortality in Aquatic Systems
The central role of microbial communities in the cycling of carbon, nutrients, and trace elements in marine systems is widely accepted by the oceanographic community. Quantifying rates and mechanisms of microbial loss in marine systems is germane to understanding global processes. This special session seeks contributions that provide insight on the mechanisms and rates of microbial losses in aquatic environments, as well as novel techniques for quantify these rates. Papers are encouraged from researchers interested in all aspects of microbial mortality including the influences of viruses, grazing, UV radiation, and apoptosis.

Conveners: Steven W. Wilhelm, Department of Microbiology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, Phone: +1-423-974-0665, E-mail: wilhelm@utk.edu; and Curtis A. Suttle, Department of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Phone: +1-604-822-8610, Fax: +1-604-822-6091, E-mail: suttle@eos.ubc.ca

OS13   Flow Over Rough Topography
Much of our theoretical understanding of the ocean is based upon models that characterize oceanic boundaries with a rectangular geometry or as a planar slope. Most systematic observations of ocean bottom currents have similarly focused on flat or gently sloping areas. This is a poor characterization, however, of bottom topography over much of the seafloor. The ocean bottom can be highly variable on scales of meters to hundreds of kilometers, and this has important dynamical consequences at both subinertial and superinertial frequencies. Wave generation, wave scattering, form stress, turbulent production, and the structure of planetary boundary layers are all impacted by the presence of topographic variability. Recent advances in acoustic and rapid-profiling instruments have provided new views of these phenomena. Simultaneously, isopycnal and sigma-coordinate numerical models have made numerical simulation of such flows much more realistic. Observational, numerical, laboratory, and theoretical investigations of stratified/rotating flow over rough topography are encouraged for this session.

Conveners: Parker MacCready, University of Washington, Oceanography, Box 357940, Seattle, WA 98195-7940, Phone: +1-206-685-9588, Fax: +1-206-543-6073, E-mail: parker@ocean.washington.edu; and Kurt Polzin, MS-21, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543, Phone: +1-508-289-3368, Fax: +1-508-457-2181, E-mail: kpolzin@whoi.edu

OS14   Integrating Biology and Physics in Ecosystem Studies of Planktonic Populations
Studies of the coupling between physics and biology of zooplankton and ichthyoplankton are being conducted in the North Atlantic, North Pacific, and Southern Oceans. These carefully designed studies of "target species" are leading to new insights into the coupled physical and biological processes that control animal distribution and abundance. This session is designed to enable researchers working in these areas to present papers that cover the following topics: (1) modeling and observations (distribution, abundance, and rate processes) of the planktonic populations; (2) modeling and observations of physical processes (e.g., cross-frontal exchange, tidal mixing fronts, wind-driven flow, turbulent mixing) which influence the physical environment and may effect biological processes; (3) population dynamics and its relation to physical processes; (4) links between regional physical and biological phenomena to larger scales; (5) regime shift studies of plankton populations including linkages to climate change or climate variability; and (6) connections to fish recruitment. Of particular interest are modeling and observational studies that integrate biological and physical processes.

Conveners: Peter Wiebe, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543, Phone: +1-508-289-2313, Fax: +1-508-457-2169, E-mail: pwiebe@whoi.edu; Tom Powell, University of California, Berkeley; Brad de Young, Memorial University; Eileen Hofmann Old Dominion University; and Robert Beardsley, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.

OS15   Interdisciplinary Studies of Arctic and Antarctic Polynyas
The last decade of this century has seen intensive interdisciplinary research conducted in both Arctic and Antarctic polynyas (open bodies of water surrounded by dense concentrations of ice on continental shelves). The physical mechanisms responsible for the seasonal opening and maintenance of a polynya also largely determine atmospheric exchanges, nutrient fluxes, and biological responses within the area. Biological responses and enhanced rates of food web transfer in a polynya often occur in the extreme and may extend far beyond the physical boundaries of the open water, thus enhancing the overall importance of polynyas to polar ecosystems. The magnitude and scope of the various processes that occur within and beyond the boundaries of polynyas may also influence climate and the sedimentary record. This session will begin to explore interdisciplinary themes in the physical, geochemical, and ecosystem functioning of Arctic and Antarctic polynyas.

Conveners: Jody Deming, University of Washington, Box 357940, Seattle, WA 98195, Phone: +1- 206-543-0845, Fax: +1-206-543-0275, E-mail: jdeming@u.washington.edu; and Walker Smith, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, Greate Road, Box 1346, Gloucester Point, VA 23062, Phone: +1-804-684-7709, Fax: +1-804-684-7293, E-mail: wos@vims.edu

OS16   Biogeochemical Dynamics of the Southern Ocean: Past, Present, and Future
In recent years, significant advances have been made in understanding the temporal evolution of phytoplankton blooms and patterns of carbon flux in the Southern Ocean, as well as the effects of various environmental factors in controlling phytoplankton growth and biomass and the biogeochemistry of carbon. This session will highlight the recent advances in our understanding of plankton dynamics in the Southern Ocean, including controls of community composition, temporal and spatial variability of productivity, loss processes, interactions among carbon pools, nutrient dynamics, influences of trace metals, and the role of mesoscale features in various systems. Paleoceanographic research has identified dramatic responses to past climate changes in biogeochemical dynamics of the Southern Ocean, but the exact nature of past responses remains controversial. Recent paleoceanographic research has focused on development of proxies to better interpret the sedimentary record. This session will provide an opportunity to examine proxy calibration efforts within the context of modern biogeochemical process studies. Models suggest that future responses in the Southern Ocean to global warming may impose significant feedbacks on the buildup of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. This session will bring together modelers and experimentalists to examine physical-biogeochemical linkages in the Southern Ocean that hold the key to understanding the role of the Southern Ocean in the global carbon cycle.

Conveners: Robert Anderson, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, P.O. Box 1000, Palisades, NY 10964, Phone: +1-914-365-8508, Fax: +1-914-265-8155, E-mail: boba@ldeo.columbia.edu; and Walker Smith, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, Greate Road, Box 1346 Gloucester Point, VA 23062, Phone: +1-804-684-7709, Fax: +1-804-684-7293, E-mail: wos@vims.edu

OS17   The Origin and Reactivity of Dissolved Organic Matter
Recent advances in understanding the sources, production, and utilization of dissolved organic matter (DOM) will be presented and discussed in this session. There are many common threads emerging from recent studies of DOM cycling in different oceanic regions, and a goal of this session is to provide a synthesis of these observations with the hope of identifying major and "universal" processes. Topics of interest include but are not limited to identifying the sources and mechanisms of DOM formation, DOM cycling in the microbial loop, and the roles of photochemical processes in DOM cycling.

Conveners: Ronald Benner, Department of Biological Sciences, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, Tel: +1-803-777-9561, Fax: +1-803-777-4002, E-mail: benner@biol.sc.edu; and Jim Bauer, School of Marine Science, College of William and Mary, Gloucester Point, VA 23062-1346, Phone: +1-804-684-7136, E-mail: bauer@vims.edu

OS18   Ocean Fronts: Patterns, Structures, and Processes
The World Ocean features a variety of fronts, which are narrow zones of enhanced horizontal gradients of properties that separate different water masses and/or structures. Fronts are crucial for ocean physics and chemistry (along-frontal/cross-frontal transport of heat, salt, tracers, contaminants, etc.), biology (increased productivity near fronts), and meteorology and climate (different rates of ocean-atmosphere interactions on opposite sides of major fronts). This special session will emphasize multidisciplinary aspects of the study of ocean fronts on a variety of spatial (local to global) and temporal (synoptic to multidecadal) scales. We are going to solicit presentations (and stimulate discussions) on the main topics, such as (1) spatial patterns: high-latitude fronts in the Arctic, North Atlantic, North Pacific, and Southern Oceans; subtropical and tropical fronts; equatorial upwelling fronts and related phenomena; coastal upwelling fronts and filaments; shelf-slope fronts; tidal mixing fronts; and estuarine fronts; (2) vertical and horizontal structures: step-like horizontal structure of major fronts; multifrontal structure of subtropical frontal zones; vertical structures; fronts as boundaries between different stratification types; (3) processes: three-dimensional circulation in the vicinity of fronts; frontal convergence and its biological role; and cross-frontal transport, frontal barriers, and blenders.

Conveners: Igor Belkin, Graduate School of Oceanography, University of Rhode Island, 215 South Ferry Road, Narragansett, RI 02882, Phone: +1-401-874-6533; Fax: +1-401- 874-6728, E-mail: ibelkin@gso.uri.edu; and Robert Houghton, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, P.O. Box 1000, 61 Route 9W, Palisades, NY 10964-1000, Phone: +1-914-365-8328; Fax: +1-914-365-8157, E-mail: houghton@ldeo.columbia.edu

OS19   Coastal Ocean Dynamics and Prediction
Recent field programs with closely coordinated observational and numerical modeling components have obtained an impressive amount of new information on circulation processes over the continental shelf. Several of these field programs involve joint academic, government, and industry participation encouraged through the National Oceanographic Partnership Program (NOPP). Scientific objectives of these programs include understanding the dynamics of the observed flow fields and developing nowcasting and forecasting capabilities for the coastal ocean. New representations of coastal atmospheric variables and surface forcing fields have been provided by mesoscale atmospheric models and meteorological measurements. In some experiments, interdisciplinary investigations involving measurements of biological, chemical, and optical parameters have been conducted and integrated with the circulation studies. Papers are invited on all aspects of these programs including physical, biological, chemical, and optical observations, coastal ocean modeling, and coastal mesoscale atmospheric modeling.

Conveners: John S. Allen, College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University, 104 Ocean Admin Building, Corvallis, OR 97331-5503, Phone: +1-541-737-2928, Fax: +1-541-737-2064, E-mail: jallen@oce.orst.edu; and Scott M. Glenn, Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University, PO Box 231, New Brunswick, NJ 08903, Phone: +1-732-932-6555 ext. 544, Fax: +1-732-932-8578; E-mail: glenn@caribbean.rutgers.edu

OS20   Use of Remotely-Sensed Data in Marine Carbon Cycle Studies
The study of the marine carbon cycle benefits from the global coverage available from satellite-borne sensors. Remotely sensed observations offer one of the few viable routes for extrapolating from time-series stations and process studies to basin scale. They also provide forcing functions, initial conditions, and validation for biogeochemical models or can be assimilated directly to improve model parameterizations and fields. Ocean color measurements, available since 1996 from the Japanese ocean color and temperature scanner (OCTS) (1996-1997) and from NASA's sea-viewing wide field-of-view sensor, (SeaWiFS) (1997-present) enable estimates of spatial and temporal variability of phytoplankton biomass and primary production rates, two major determinants of carbon pathways in the ocean. The application of satellite data to ocean carbon cycle studies is also a major component of the U.S. Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS) Synthesis and Modeling Program. We welcome presentations that utilize remotely sensed observations of winds, sea surface height, sea surface temperature, chlorophyll, and other variables to address the marine carbon cycle on global or regional scales.

Conveners: Mary-Elena Carr, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, MS 300-323, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, California Institute of Technology; Pasadena, CA 91109-8099, Phone: +1-818-354-5097, E-mail: mec@pacific.jpl.nasa.gov; and David Siegel, Donald Bren School of Environmental Science and Management, Department of Geography and Institute for Computational Earth System Science, University of California at Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-3060, Phone: +1-805-893-4547, E-mail: davey@icess.ucsb.edu

OS21   Marine Ecosystem Modeling on Regional to Global Scales
During the past decade, the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS) conducted regional process studies in the North Atlantic Ocean, equatorial Pacific Ocean, Arabian Sea, and Southern Ocean. These regional field studies, with extensive spatial coverage, were designed to estimate geochemical inventories, fluxes, and process kinetics of direct relevance to oceanic carbon cycling. Oceanic time-series stations in both the North Atlantic and North Pacific subtropical gyre, with near-monthly measurements over the past decade, were designed to document and understand seasonal and interannual variability of biological and physical processes relevant to the marine carbon cycle and to sea-air exchange of carbon dioxide. The database generated from regional process studies and oceanic time-series stations offers an unprecedented opportunity to develop marine ecosystem models on regional to global scales. However, how does one utilize the survey data, which have extensive spatial coverage but are not synoptic? How can marine ecosystem models be related to the observational databases generated by process studies and the oceanic time-series stations? The robust ecosystem models will help us to quantify the principal processes that control the partitioning of carbon among oceanic reservoirs on local, regional and global scales. How are the principal processes expressed spatially and temporally? How are these processes and their interactions parameterized in regional, and global models? Time-series observations have fostered the development of marine ecosystem models at fixed locations (i.e., one-dimensional models), but how can one scale upward the one-dimensional models to regional and global scales? This special session calls for papers that attempt to address these and related questions.

Conveners: Fei Chai, School of Marine Sciences, University of Maine, Orono, ME 04469-5741, Phone: +1-207-581-4317, Fax: +1-207-581-4388, E-mail: fchai@maine.edu; and Kevin Arrigo, Department of Geophysics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-2215, Phone: +1-301-286-9634, Fax: +1-301-614-5644, E-mail: kevin@shark.gsfc.nasa.gov

OS22   Global Warming and Sea Level Change on Annual, Interannual, and Decadal Timescales
In recent years, improvements in in situ and space-based measurements, as well as numerical models, have led to better observations of global warming signals at interannual timescales. During the 1997-1998 El Niņo-Southern Oscillation, the TOPEX/Poseidon spacecraft measured a significant rise in global mean sea level. Other related parameters such as sea surface temperature and atmospheric water vapor also increased at about the same time. These variations arise from changes in the global heat budget and hydrological cycle, variations in the atmospheric and oceanic circulation, and changing solar irradiance. This session will focus on variability of ocean and atmospheric parameters related to global warming and sea level change on global spatial scales and annual to decadal timescales. We seek results from both observations and models. Of particular interest are studies which examine the relationship between oceanic and atmospheric signals and global warming at these timescales.

Conveners: Don P. Chambers, Center for Space Research, University of Texas at Austin, MCC, Suite 200, Room 1000, Austin, TX 78712, Phone: +1-512-471-5573, Fax: +1-512-471-3570, E-mail: chambers@csr.utexas.edu; R. Steven Nerem, Center for Space Research, University of Texas at Austin, MCC, Suite 200, Room 1000, Austin, TX 78712, Phone: +1-512-471-5573, Fax: +1-512-471-3570, E-mail: nerem@csr.utexas.edu; and Warren B. White, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California at San Diego, E-mail: wbwhite@ucsd.edu

OS23   JGOFS: Ocean Biogeochemistry, Observations, Models and Synthesis
Global-scale programs in ocean biogeochemistry are completing over a decade of observational field studies and have embarked on an ambitious, international effort aimed at enhanced understanding of the observational results through application of models and other types of synthesis activities. In this session we highlight early results from the synthesis activity. Presentations may include, and will not be limited to, treatments in the following areas: global, regional, and local scale models of ocean processes, CO2 fluxes and distributions, ocean margin fluxes, sediment processes and deposition, euphotic zone production and export, mesopelagic transports and transformations, foodweb structure, longer-term changes in ecosystem function and fluxes, plankton functional groups, ocean color and productivity modeling (satellite biogeochemistry), and nitrogen fixation/denitrification. Presentations on plans for future studies are encouraged. Oral and poster sessions are requested. Several invited, 30-45 minute talks will be commissioned. Expected number of speakers is 36.

Conveners: Hugh Ducklow, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, Box 1346, Gloucester Point, VA 23062, Phone: +1-804-684-7180, Fax: +1-804-684-7293, E-mail: duck@vims.edu; Mike Fasham, Southampton Oceanography Centre, Southampton, UK, E-mail: mjf@soc.soton.ac.uk; Scott Doney, NCAR, Boulder CO, E-mail: doney@ucar.edu; and K. K. Liu, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan

OS24   Coral Reefs and Global Change: Recent to Milankovitch Time Scale
Modern tropical coral reefs constitute 5% of the Earth's biome. Their success in tropical latitudes is attributable to the presence of obligate endosymbiotic algae which both provide nutrients to the animal via translocation and facilitate skeletal calcification. Living coral tissue represents a thin veneer often overlying massive carbonate platforms. Although reef corals flourish in shallow warm waters where temperature fluctuations are generally low, these organisms are sensitive to slight changes in temperature. Prolonged exposure to water temperatures only 1o - 2oC above or below normal ranges can disrupt metabolic processes, leading to the decoupling of this obligate symbiotic association. This sensitivity makes reef corals ideal systems for studying past climate variability. Changes in environmental conditions, such as warming or cooling in sea surface temperatures, fluctuations in salinity variations via increased rainfall and riverine outflow, and nutrification and loading of particulate matter, can all have a negative impact on the reef health. Recent and past changes in climate have had a major impact on reef development, some clearly related to shifts in the frequency of El Niņo/La Niņa cycles and long-term fluctuations in the position and intensity of the ITCZ and SPCZ. These phenomena are often recorded in the skeleton of large coral heads in the stable isotopic and trace metal composition of their skeletal aragonite. In addition, thick reefal carbonate edifices are accurate recorders of longer and larger-scale geological variations such as climate and coupled sea level fluctuations, reflecting orbital cyclicity. Comparative studies between deglacial, interglacial, and glacial reefs in the late Quaternary have shed some new light on the variations of ocean conditions. Given the immense size of many extant reef corals, it is possible to accurately reconstruct patterns of climate change over seasonal, millennial, and Milankovitch timescales. The proposed full-day session will gather a group of scientists working on the linkages of coral reef evolution and global changes ranging over annual, decadal, millennial, and Milankovitch timescales. This session will give a unique opportunity for different international scientific communities to overlap and contrast their findings. We are proposing to invite a series of ten speakers representing these different timescales.

Conveners: Andre W. Droxler, Rice University, Houston, TX, E-mail: andre@rice.edu; and Gerard M. Wellington, University of Houston, 4800 Calhoun Road, Houston, TX, 77204, Phone: +1-713-743-2649, E-mail: wellington@uh.edu.

OS25   Material Flux and Fate in The Tropical Coastal Ocean
Wet tropical environments are recognized as extremely important sites of particulate and dissolved inputs to the coastal ocean. The many unique characteristics of tropical settings lead to important contrasts in the ultimate fate of these materials relative to middle- and high-lattitude settings. The purpose of this session is to highlight ongoing studies of project TROPICS regarding the biogeochemical, geological, and physical oceanographic processes operating to control the trapping, bypassing, and cycling of solutes and sediments from a wet tropical area of high relief (Island of New Guinea) on contrasting broad and narrow coastal shelves. Contributions are encouraged from other studies of river-ocean interaction in wet tropical environments.

Conveners: Gregg J. Brunskill, Australian Institute of Marine Science, PMB No. 3, Townsville, Queensland 4810 Australia, Phone: +07-4753-4218 or 211, Fax: +07- 4772-5852, E-mail: g.brunskill@aims.gov.au; Kathy Burns, Australian Institute of Marine Science, PMB No. 3, Townsville, Queensland 4810 Australia, Phone: +07-4753-4376 or 224, Fax: +07-4772-5852, E-mail: k.burns@aims.gov.au; Gail C. Kineke, Department of Geology and Geophysics, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA 02167, Phone: +1-617-552-3655, Fax: +1-617-552-2462, E-mail: kinekeg@bc.edu; Steven A. Kuehl, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, College of William and Mary, Gloucester Point, VA 23062, Phone: +1-804-684-7118, Fax: +1-804-684-7250, E-mail: kuehl@vims.edu; and Charles A. Nittrouer, School of Oceanography, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, Phone: +1-206-543-5099, Fax: +1-206-543-6073, E-mail: nittroue@ocean.washington.edu

OS26   Chaotic Paths Through Fluid Dynamics: Scientific Essays in Honor of Professor Claes Rooth
Contributions are welcome that relate to the many areas of geophysical fluid dynamics and climate to which Claes Rooth has contributed. Examples of topics may include, but are not limited to, deep and shallow ventilation processes and tracers in the world ocean, the role of competing sources in deep ventilation, nonlinear effects on air-sea interaction dynamics in ocean models, and interactions of near-inertial phenomena with low-frequency currents. In particular, papers are encouraged that explore the unexpected consequences of chaotic behavior in geophysical fluids and related phenomena such as climate over a wide range of timescales and space scales.

Conveners: Kevin Leaman, RSMAS, University of Miami, Division of Meteorology and Physical Oceanography, Phone: +1-305-361-4058, Fax: +1-305-361-4696; and Rana Fine, RSMAS/MAC, University of Miami, 4600 Rickenbacker Causeway Miami, FL 33149, Phone: +1-305-361-4722, E-mail: rfine@rsmas.miami.edu

OS27   Atmospheric Coupling of Terrestrial and Ocean Systems
The ocean is a vast repository for continentallyderived organic and inorganic species which are delivered via the atmosphere, and aeolian input is a major flux pathway for organic carbon and many inorganic components. Variations in the atmospheric fluxes of some constituents, such as mineral dust, may have a pronounced effect on ocean biogeochemistry. Variations in ocean circulation and fluxes of gaseous species affect continental climate patterns and terrestrial and surface ocean biology. This multidisciplinary special session is intended to bring together geochemists, biologists, atmospheric scientists, physical oceanographers, and paleoceanographers to highlight recent studies which examine the many ways in which terrestrial and oceanic systems are linked via the atmosphere and how these linkages may alter or be altered by climate change.

Conveners: Maureen H. Conte, Department of Marine Chemistry and Geochemistry, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543, Phone: +1-508-289-2931, Fax: +1-508-457-2193, E-mail: mconte@whoi.edu; and Tom Church, College of Marine Studies, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716, Phone: +1-302-831-2558, Fax: +1-302-831-4575, E-mail: tchurch@udel.edu

OS28   Physical Forcing and Impacts on Particulate Dispersal Over Continental Margins
The transport and fate of particulate matter over continental margins is closely linked to physical forcing conditions. Surface gravity waves, wind-driven and buoyancy-driven currents, wave-induced currents, and hyperpycnal transport of sediment plumes are examples of the diverse physical processes affecting the transport, remobilization, and deposition of particles on continental margins. This session will include the physical oceanographic processes that drive the transport as well as the geological, biochemical, and ecological consequences of these processes. A broad range of timescales should be considered, from the period of surface gravity waves to timescales of climate change. Transport of sediments, organic carbon, and organisms are all within the purview of the session.

Conveners: Charles A. Nittrouer, School of Oceanography, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, Phone: +1-206-543-5099, Fax: +1-206-543-6073, E-mail: nittroue@ocean.washington.edu; and Rocky Geyer, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA, 02543, E-mail: rgeyer@whoi.edu

OS29   Southern Ocean Fluxes: Impact on Climate
The Southern Ocean plays a crucial role in global climate. Its Antarctic Circumpolar Current is the main route for exchange of mass, heat, and other properties between all ocean basins, and it serves as a conduit for the propagation of climate anomalies. Southern Ocean interactions with the polar atmosphere and the cryosphere shape the distribution of much of the World Ocean's intermediate and deep water masses, and sustain global thermohaline circulation. Gas exchange across the air-sea interface pose important questions in determining how oxygen, CO2, and other atmospheric gases are taken up by the ocean. Simulations of global climate are extremely sensitive to Antarctic sea-ice coverage and to upwelling of deep circumpolar waters within the Southern Ocean. Papers will present results from recent observational, numerical, and dynamical studies on these topics, including works from the WOCE and JGOFS programs as well as results preliminary to CLIVAR.

Conveners: Sarah T. Gille, Department of Earth System Science, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-3100, Phone: +1-949-824-3936, Fax: +1-949-824-3256, E-mail: sgille@uci.edu; and Alejandro H. Orsi, Texas A&M University, Department of Oceanography, College Station, TX 77843-3146, Phone: +1-409-845-4014, Fax: +1-409-847-8879, E-mail: aorsi@tamu.edu

OS30   Geochemistry and Microbiology of Continental Margin Oxygen Deficient
One of the primary hydrographic features of the world ocean are the major midwater oxygen deficient zones (e.g., eastern tropical North Pacific, eastern tropical South Pacific, and the Indian Ocean). Associated with these zones are many unique organisms, processes, and diagenetic pathways in both the water column and continental margin sediments where the oxygen-deficient water column impinges. This session welcomes contributions pertinent to the unique aspects of these areas, which include but are not limited to water column denitrification, the importance of these regions in the global nitrogen budget, coupling of nitrification-manganese reduction in sediments, unique microorganisms and adaptations to oxygen deficient regions (Beggiatoa, Thioploca, Thiomargarita, and others), investigations of the factors controlling organic matter preservation in the high-carbon sediments that typically are found in margin sediments in contact with these zones (role of hypoxia and/or productivity, preservation mechanisms, etc.), and interpretation of paleooceanographic records recovered from oxygen-deficient-zone sediments (influence of depositional conditions on the integrity of preserved signals, reconstructions of upwelling or productivity, etc.).

Conveners: Rick Keil and Allan Devol, School of Oceanography, University of Washington, Box 357940, Seattle, WA 98195-7940, Phone: +1-206-616-1947, Fax: +1-206-543-0275, E-mail: rickkeil@u.washington.edu; devol@u.washington.edu

OS31   Particles in the Upper Ocean: Cycling, Export and Remineralization
The process by which particles are formed, aggregated, and otherwise packaged into sinking material is of considerable importance in the mass balance and cycling of many major and minor elements in the ocean. The largest gradients in particle flux occur once these particles leave the euphotic zone. Between the surface and deep ocean, remineralization and repackaging of particles takes place, altering the flux and chemical composition of sinking particles. This session brings together scientists interested in particle dynamics in the surface and midwater column from physical, chemical, and biological fields. Results from the latest particle collection systems; chemical, isotopic, and physical analyses of particles; studies of biological influences on particle dynamics, midwater packaging, and remineralization; laboratory studies; and particle modeling efforts will be brought together in this session.

Conveners: Ken O. Buesseler, Department of Marine Chemistry and Geochemistry, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, MS-25, Woods Hole, MA 02543, Phone: +1-508-289-2309, Fax: +1-508-457-2193, E-mail: kbuesseler@whoi.edu; Deborah K. Steinberg, Bermuda Biological Station for Research, Ferry Reach, GE01, Bermuda, Phone: +1-441-297-1880 ext. 303, Fax: +1-441-297-8143, E-mail: debbie@bbsr.edu; and George Jackson, Department of Oceanography, Texas A&M University, 1204 Oceanography and Meteorology Building, College Station, TX 77843-0405, Phone: +1-409-845-0405, Fax: +1-409-845-8219, E-mail: gjackson@tamu.edu

OS32   Bioinorganic Chemistry in the Marine Environment
Bioinorganic chemistry is the study of inorganic elements in living systems, with an emphasis on their behavior in vivo. The importance of biologically active elements in marine biogeochemistry is widely recognized, both as essential micronutrients and as toxic species. Currently, there is interest in understanding the effects of metals on marine organisms at the molecular level. Research areas include the structure and function of key metalloenzymes in ecologically important procaryotic and eucaryotic organisms, metal acquisition strategies for scarce micronutrients, and detoxification mechanisms in harsh chemical regimes. These studies reveal processes not previously observed in terrestrial organisms and provide new insights into how metals interact with important species in marine ecosystems.

Conveners: James Moffett, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA, 02543, Phone: +1-508-289-3218, Fax: +1-508-457-2164, E-mail: jmoffett@whoi.edu; Francois Morel, Princeton University, Department of Geological and Geophysical Sciences, Guyot Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544 USA, Tel: +1-609-258-2416, Fax: +1-609-258-5242, E-mail: morel@princeton.edu

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