2002 Spring Meeting    Meeting Highlights

    SPA: Aeronomy
    SPA: Solar and Heliosphere
    SPA: Magnetospheric Physics



Union Sessions With Science and Policy Focus
Several Union sessions focus on topics with significant policy implications. These sessions seek to bring scientists and the policy experts together. In "Geophysics and Terrorism" (U22A) topics covered include forensic seismology, baseline monitoring, educating those who monitor the environment, and an overview of legislative initiatives important to geophysics. Another session (U32A) deals with the sustainability of fresh water and fossil fuels. Policies for sustainability and estimates of resource availability will be examined.

Union Tutorials
On Tuesday morning there will be four 35-minute talks on topics that are highlighted throughout the meeting. These talks are designed to introduce some of the key ideas surrounding a topic that will help nonspecialists who want to learn more about topics in the Union outside their specialty. These talks cover regional climate and assessing climate change; space weather and its effect on technology; the geopolitics of conflict diamonds; and geoscience and policy.

U41A, U42A
Ice Sheets, Neotectonics, and Sea-Level Change
An oral and poster session focus on ice sheets and the effect of ice on tectonics and sea level. This includes monitoring and modeling current ice sheets as well as simulations of Laurentide ice sheet evolution.

Geophysics in the 20th Century: Contributions From Washington
As the Spring Meeting returns to Washington we have a session focusing on the contributions to geophysics from Washington institutions and the role of federal programs on geophysical research.


A21A, A22B, A52B, B22B, B42B, H22A, H22B, H51D
Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, Ocean, and Land
The availability of remotely sensed data has enabled scientists to explore phenomena linking components of the Earth system over broad spatial and temporal scales. These sessions explore a wide variety of issues, including retrieval of remotely sensed data, calibration and evaluation of these data, and the application of remote measurements to evaluating land and water use.

A21B, A21C, A21D, A22A, A22E, A31D, A41D, A51B, A51C, A52F
The Impact of Aerosols on Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate
Natural and anthropogenic activities emit particulate matter into the atmosphere that can significantly alter chemical processes, the formation of clouds, and the radiation field. These sessions present measurements of aerosol concentration and composition in both polluted and clean regions and modeling studies of the impact of these aerosols on the local and global environment.

A22C, A31C, A32C, A42A, A51A
This session is organized around "balance," the central theme of geophysical fluid dynamics. Papers will present applications of geophysical fluid dynamics to studies of Earth and planetary atmospheres, oceans, and planetary disks. Atmospheric patterns such as the North Atlantic Oscillation will also be explored.

A32A, A51E, B32A, B41A, B42A, H32C, H52C
Land-Atmosphere Interactions
Papers in these sessions will describe field experimentation and modeling related to the understanding of interactions between the land surface/biosphere and atmosphere over local to regional scales (meters to kilometers). Exchange and deposition of reactive trace species, water vapor, and carbon dioxide, as well as transfer of heat and momentum from a variety of land surface types, will be considered.

A32D, A42B
Seventeen Years of SAGE II Data
The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE II) has gathered more than 17 years of data about stratospheric and upper tropospheric aerosols, ozone and water vapor. These sessions will describe the recently released Version 6.1 SAGE II data and some of the scientific studies that have been done with this data set, contributing to our understanding of the trends and variability of trace gases and aerosols.


B21A, B22A , B31B, B32B
Lake Vostok, Arid Ecosystems, and Species Populations
A number of sessions will explore biogeochemical and biophysical processes in specific regions. One session will explore the possibility of a viable ecosystem within Lake Vostok, a unique and ancient subglacial lake which has been isolated from direct exchange with the atmosphere for millions of years. Another session will examine water-limited ecosystems and the significant impact of hydrology on plant physiology, nutrient cycles, fluxes of CO2 and water vapor, biomass production, plant growth, and population dynamics. A session on declining species populations as biological indicators for evaluating human impacts will assess linkages between population dynamics, climate, and water quality.

B22B, B42B, H22A, H22B, H51D, A21A, A22B, A52B
Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, Ocean, and Land
The availability of remotely sensed data has enabled scientists to explore phenomena linking components of the Earth system over broad spatial and temporal scales. These sessions explore a wide variety of issues, including retrieval of remotely sensed data, calibration and evaluation of these data, and the application of remote measurements to evaluating land and water use.

Food Production and Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide
Did rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations at the end of the last glacial period trigger settled life and food production? This session will address the relative roles of climate and carbon dioxide concentrations in the stimulation of plant production and the possible role in the shift from nomadic to settled life.

B22D, B31A, B32A, B41A, B42A, B51A, B52A
Biophysical and Biogeochemical Interactions Between the Land and Atmosphere
A number of sessions will examine the exchanges of water, energy, and materials between the land surface and the atmosphere. The sessions on land-atmosphere interactions address the energy and water exchanges between the land and atmosphere, as well as the impacts of changes in vegetation on climate. Sessions on ecosystem-atmospheric CO2 Fluxes will explore the gap in spatial scales between process-level understanding derived from direct flux observations of carbon dioxide and the observed global atmospheric CO2 budget. Yet another session addresses nitrous oxide, a potent greenhouse gas and catalytic destroyer of stratospheric ozone, and the use of isotopic discrimination to close the poorly understood N2O budget.

B32A, B41A, B42A, H32C, H52C, A32A, A51E
Land-Atmosphere Interactions
Papers in these sessions will describe field experimentation and modeling related to the understanding of interactions between the land surface/biosphere and atmosphere over local to regional scales (meters to kilometers). Exchange and deposition of reactive trace species, water vapor, and carbon dioxide, as well as transfer of heat and momentum from a variety of land surface types, will be considered.

Remote Sensing for Policy-Relevant Information
The session will encompass remote sensing based research and applications that have influenced, do influence, or should influence policy decisions, address the scientific needs of policy makers, and describe both successes and deficiencies in the link between Earth science and policy. The session aims to bridge the gap between lawmakers and scientists so that policy reflects the most current state of knowledge and embraces developing information systems.

The Effects of Urban/Suburban Development on Nutrient Cycling Processes and Water Quality
This session will include presentations related to the field trips scheduled for Saturday, 1 June 2002:

Field Trips

Baltimore Ecosystem Study:
The Baltimore Ecosystem Study aims to understand Baltimore as an ecological system and to determine how the ecosystem changes over long time periods. Participants will visit a set of small catchments and experimental plots located in forested, agricultural, suburban, and urban land uses. Participants will view measurements and results from a set of ecosystem plots and catchment-scale studies that focus on storage and fluxes of terrestrial carbon, water, and nutrients. The trip will be led by Larry Band, from the University of North Carolina, and Peter Groffman, from the Institute of Ecosystem Studies.

Smithsonian Environmental Research Center:
The Smithsonian Environmental Research Center (SERC) is dedicated to increasing knowledge of the biological and physical processes that sustain life on Earth. SERC's interdisciplinary research applies long-term studies to examine ecological questions about landscapes of linked ecosystems, especially those impacted by human activities. Located on the shore of the Chesapeake Bay in Edgewater, Maryland, SERC uses the geographic features of the nation's largest estuary to investigate interconnections of aquatic, terrestrial, and atmospheric components of complex landscapes, which are then compared on regional, continental, and global scales. Participants will view measurement sites for specific field-based research projects, including the response of a salt marsh ecosystem to elevated CO2, nutrient export from a riverine ecosystem to the Chesapeake Bay, and the effects of ultraviolet radiation on plankton. The field trip will be led by Patrick Magonigal, a research scientist at SERC.


ED22B, ED41A
The Earth and Space Science Education Revolution: A Call to Action
Currently, fewer than 10% of American high school students take an Earth or space science course before graduation, in spite of the fact that these subjects were identified as being of equal importance as the core sciences (biology, chemistry, physics) by the National Science Education Standards (NRC, 1995) and that the general public requires some knowledge of the processes shaping the Earth in order to make wise policy decisions affecting our future. Papers in this session will discuss new strategies for improving the state of high school Earth and space science education and successful model programs for preparing the science teachers needed for reaching a larger student audience. State-based alliances between scientists, educators, policy makers, and community leaders, programs that link researchers with teachers, and the use of modern information technology are among the strategies proposed.

Much Ado About Criterion Two: Does Anyone Care?
In 1997 the National Science Foundation revised the merit criteria used for reviewing research proposals and added a second criterion regarding the "broader impacts" of the proposed activity. In the 2002 Grant Proposal Guide, NSF mandated that language addressing Criterion Two be included in both the proposal text and summary and reviews in order to be eligible for funding. This panel discussion, led by representatives of the National Science Board and the Geosciences Directorate at NSF, will address the impact of Criterion Two on the proposal review and funding process. Examples of activities that successfully address Criterion Two requirements will also be discussed.

Looking to Tomorrow: Research Projects of High School-Aged Geoscientists
Hands-on research opportunities in the Earth and space sciences are increasingly being made available to precollege students. These programs are essential both for helping to educate the general public about the Earth systems and for encouraging students to consider careers in the geophysical sciences. This session will highlight recent research activities on ecosystems and nutrient levels in wetlands, climate influences on tree budbursts, and environmental controls on leaf reflectance spectra being undertaken by two such high school groups - students from the Greater Richmond Area Higher Education Consortium and students from the Model Secondary School for the Deaf (Gallaudet University) who are participating in the Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) program.


GC31A, GC32A
Carbon Management Technologies: Feasibility, Impacts, Risks, and Economics
This session will provide comparative analysis of proposed carbon sequestration strategies to guide informed public policy. Technologies to be discussed will include CO2 injection into geologic formations or the deep ocean, stimulation of natural biological terrestrial and oceanic CO2 sinks, air extraction of CO2, mineral carbonation, and methods to generate fossil energy that facilitate CO2 recovery. Particular attention will be given to the feasibility, scalability, environmental impacts and risks, and implementation costs and time-constants of these technologies.

GC51A, GC52A
Comparing Arctic Models
The Arctic region is critical because it is both sensitive to climate change and active in global climate feedbacks. This session will focus on significant recent research toward improving the representation of the Arctic region in global climate models, including the Sea Ice Model Intercomparison Project (SIMIP), the Arctic Regional Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ARCMIP), and the Arctic Ocean Model Intercomparison Project (AOMIP). Model intercomparisons and model validation studies will facilitate exchange of ideas and methods across many scientific disciplines.

Reconstruction and Understanding the Late Maunder Minimum Climate Anomaly
This session will focus on the extent and pattern of cooling during the Little Ice Age (broadly synonymous with the "Late Maunder Minimum") and on the causes of climate change during this time. Topics of particular interest will include the relative roles of volcanism and solar forcing in controlling climate change, and the relevance of natural climate forcings to anthropogenic forcings during recent centuries.

Pacific Decadal Variability
Pacific decadal climate variability (PDV) research is producing exciting new insights and framing important questions in several disciplines. In this session, multiple dimensions of PDV will be discussed, including observations from the instrumental record, impacts on hydrology, impacts on marine ecosystems, paleoclimate evidence, dynamics, predictability, modeling, and PDV research opportunities in the CLIVAR program.


Global Precipitation Measurement for Hydrology and Hydrometeorology
The Global Precipitation Mission promises a new era of unprecedented spaceborne precipitation measurements on a global scale. This special session focuses on the technical aspects of satellite observations (sampling, retrieval, and data merging issues), as well as on the potential benefits of enhanced temporal sampling to scientific understanding (hydrologic and climatic issues) and society (improved forecasts and water resources management).

H22A, H22B, H51D, A21A, A22B, A52B, B22B, B42B
Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, Ocean, and Land
The availability of remotely sensed data has enabled scientists to explore phenomena linking components of the Earth system over broad spatial and temporal scales. These sessions explore a wide variety of issues, including retrieval of remotely sensed data, calibration and evaluation of these data, and the application of remote measurements to evaluating land and water use.

Designing and Optimizing Long-Term Groundwater Monitoring Programs
Effective environmental management at sites with contaminated groundwater requires long-term monitoring to assess natural attenuation and other remedial activities and to verify the integrity of remediated sites and containment systems. In this special session, investigators representing universities, government agencies, laboratories, contractors, and private research companies will discuss current practice and future research needs for design and optimization of long-term groundwater monitoring programs. Topics range from optimization methods through case studies and field experience to revolutionary scenarios for the future of long-term monitoring.

H31A, H32D, H41B
Links Between Hydrology and Water Quality in the Florida Everglades
As science-based restoration efforts commence in the Everglades, it is imperative that scientists are actively communicating their research findings with each other and with policy makers. This interdisciplinary session provides a forum for this interaction, bringing together Everglades hydrologists, ecologists, and geochemists to present research on the past, current, and future health of the Everglades.

Langbein Lecture
The Walter B. Langbein Lecture is the named address of the Hydrology Section and is given at the AGU Spring Meeting. The lectureship is awarded for lifetime contributions to the basic science of hydrology and/or for unselfish service in promoting cooperation in hydrologic research. The 2001 Langbein Lecturer is George Hornberger, a professor of Environmental Sciences at the University of Virginia, and a past editor of Water Resources Research. Professor Hornberger's lecture considers the usefulness of uncertain models in decision making on environmental issues. The lecture focuses on problems where long-range forecasts of environmental impacts are made to inform policy debates.

H32B, H41C
Uncertainty Assessments for Environmental Modeling in the Unsaturated Zone
This special session explores the sources of uncertainty in environmental modeling of contaminant transport in shallow ground/surface water systems and discusses methods to evaluate and quantify uncertainty. Examples of field applications of uncertainty methods in environmental modeling will include both radioactive and chemical contamination assessments. Uncertainty assessments involving highly dynamic and transient processes such as rainfall, infiltration, and ground recharge will also be presented.

H32C, H52C, A32A, A51E, B32A, B41A, B42A
Land-Atmosphere Interactions
Papers in these sessions will describe field experimentation and modeling related to the understanding of interactions between the land surface/biosphere and atmosphere over local to regional scales (meters to kilometers). Exchange and deposition of reactive trace species, water vapor, and carbon dioxide, as well as transfer of heat and momentum from a variety of land surface types, will be considered.

Advances in Global Water Cycle Research
During the past 2 years agencies within the United States Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) have been placing increased emphasis on the global water cycle. This session will bring together the science community and the federal program specialists to review the needs for water cycle science and to discuss the advances that are being made in addressing priority research questions in key aspects of the global water cycle such as water vapor, precipitation, remote sensing, and biospheric processes.

Impacts of Land Use Change: Scientific Issues and Policy Relevance
As population in the United States and worldwide grows, pressures to urbanize the landscape continue to mount. However, development of the landscape leads to a spectrum of negative hydrologic and biogeochemical consequences. Presentations in this special session will feature studies of hydrologic and biogeochemical effects of urbanization, and policy and decision tools relating to land use change.

Modeling Groundwater Flow and Transport Using the Analytical Element Method and Other Analytical Techniques
In recent years, analytic methods have matured into powerful techniques for simulating groundwater flow in heterogeneous aquifers. The analytical element method is now being used to create multiaquifer models for integrated watershed management at regional scales, to study hydrological interactions between lakes, surface waters, and groundwater, and to define well-head protection zones around public water supply wells. This special session will feature the latest theoretical developments of the analytic element method, analytic-based flow solutions for both the saturated and the unsaturated zone, as well as application-based developments in modeling of regional groundwater flow and stochastic dispersion modeling.

The Role of Models and Data in the TMDL Process
Identifying sources of pollutant loadings, and the contribution of individual sources to water quality impairment, are but a few of the scientific challenges to implementing the Clean Water Act's Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) program. This special session will feature a presentation on the implications of modeling uncertainty for water quality decision-making, drawing on experiences from the recently completed National Research Council study of the TMDL process. Researchers will also discuss a wide mix of empirical and mechanistic modeling approaches for addressing physical, chemical, and biological water quality issues.


Physical Processes in Salt Marshes and Barrier Islands
Salt marshes and barrier islands are complex environments located at the border between sea and land. This special session will highlight the interaction between hydrodynamics, geomorphologic, geophysical, and ecological processes in these dynamic coastal environments.

OS22A, OS32A
Ocean Variability
Variability in the ocean stratification, waves, mixed-layer depth, and circulation is observed on a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. This session will explore the coupled air-sea-land-ice interactions responsible for this variability and relate this variability to climate dynamics.

Rachel Carson Lecture
The Rachel Carson lecture will this year be presented by Dr. Jane Lubchenco, of the Oregon State University. Dr. Lubchenco is an environmental scientist and marine ecologist. She teaches, conducts research, and works to improve the communication of scientific knowledge. Her research interests include biodiversity, climate change, sustainability science, and the state of the oceans. In her talk, Dr. Lubchenco notes that in the years since Rachel Carson published her work the ecosystems of the ocean have undergone substantial changes. Human activity has contributed to these changes, and there is now the pressing need to protect and restore marine ecosystems. While the path to accomplish this is not yet fully developed, Dr. Lubchenco believes that to do so will require the involvement of all areas of the ocean sciences and the efforts of many. New interdisciplinary areas will be developed that will bring opportunities to advance understanding.


P21B, P22A
Farewell to Io: A Last Look by Galileo
The Galileo spacecraft, in orbit around Jupiter for more than 6 years, recently completed its last science encounter with the Galilean satellites. Two sessions will present the latest results from recent encounters with Io, the innermost of the Galilean satellites and the most volcanically active object in the solar system. The combination of high-resolution imaging with thermal infrared imaging spectrometer data and ground-based observations provides a new perspective on the active volcanism that is constantly resurfacing this unique moon. Come and hear the latest assessments of these data as a farewell to the Galileo spacecraft, which will end its mission in 2003 by a controlled entry into the atmosphere of Jupiter.

P31A, P32A, P41A
Mars From Two Perspectives: Global Surveyor and Odyssey
Two orbiting spacecraft are simultaneously operating at Mars, for the first time since the two Viking Orbiters in the late 1970s. Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) has been providing a new perspective on Mars since 1997 through high-resolution and wide-angle imaging, precise topographic data for the entire planet, mapping compositional variations using infrared spectra, and detection of crustal magnetic anomalies. Mars Odyssey began its mapping mission in February 2002 with a suite of instruments very complementary to those on MGS: an imaging thermal and visual spectrometer, a suite of gamma ray and X-ray detectors, and a radiation monitor for planning of eventual human expeditions to Mars. The simultaneous operation of both MGS and Odyssey provides the opportunity for a synergy of observational opportunities not realized during any previous missions to Mars. Three sessions are devoted to presenting new results from the extended MGS mission and first results from the Mars Odyssey mission.

Mars Sample Return: Science, Implementation, Issues, and Plans
The Mars Exploration Program (MEP) of NASA consists of a series of robotic missions that will lead toward the eventual return of samples from Mars. This session presents the scientific rationale behind the MEP, the anticipated value of obtaining documented samples from the Martian surface, and issues related to proper handling of materials that could have significant biological implications.


SPA: Aeronomy

SA21A, SA22A, SA32A
The Mesosphere/Lower Thermosphere Region: Structure, Dynamics, Composition, and Emission
The mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) between 50 and 150 km is a complex region where a variety of processes are important. Papers in this session explore this variety and highlight the interactions between radiative processes, chemistry, wave dynamics, turbulence, electrodynamics, and nonlinear processes. In particular, new results are presented on noctilucent clouds and other mesospheric chemical and dynamical processes.

SA31A, SA32B
New Results and Approaches to Observations of the Atmospheric Limb
This session brings together observers, theorists, and modelers to understand how observations of the limb contribute to an understanding of atmospheric behavior. Special emphasis is given to the Odin satellite, a combined astronomy/aeronomy mission supported by Sweden, Canada, Finland, and France, that was launched from Svobodny in Russia on 20 February 2001. Two instruments, a submillimeter/millimeter radiometer and a combined optical spectrograph infrared imaging system (OSIRIS), observe the terrestrial limb in order to permit the retrieval of atmospheric height profiles. The early results from Odin have revealed the presence of atmospheric structures and temporal variations that have not been previously observed; at the same time, these new observations also show the potential for misinterpretation with traditional observing strategies.

Parker Lecture
The Parker Lecture is the solar-heliospheric Bowie Lecture for the Space Physics and Aeronomy section. The Bowie Lecture series was inaugurated in 1989 for all sections to commemorate the 50th presentation of the William Bowie Medal, which is AGU's highest honor and is named for AGU's first president. The Bowie Medal was awarded to Eugene Parker in 1990. This meeting's Parker Lecture will be given by Robert P. Lin, of the University of California at Berkeley. He will describe the Sun as the most powerful particle accelerator in the solar system and will discuss our present understanding of the fundamental physical processes in solar flares, based in part on data from the recently launched High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (HESSI) spacecraft.

Student Contributions to Aeronomy Research
This session is designed to provide a forum for students to present their ongoing research efforts in aeronomy. The session allows for students, including theorists, modelers, and experimentalists, to discuss research in either oral or poster presentations. Emphasis is on the multidisciplinary nature of the field, representing research from all of subsections of aeronomy.

SA51A, SA52A , SA52B
Preliminary Results From the Thermosphere, Ionosphere, Mesosphere, Energetics, and Dynamics (TIMED) Mission
The Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite studies the temporal and spatial variations of the basic atmospheric structure and energy balance between 60 and 180 km. It will provide at least 2 years of continuous, near-global observations of important geophysical parameters from a 625-km circular orbit with a 74.1-degree inclination using four remote sensing instruments. GUVI is a spatial scanning far-ultraviolet spectrograph that measures composition and temperature in the lower thermosphere, as well as auroral energy inputs. SABER is an infrared radiometer, which measures pressure, temperature, and infrared cooling rates in the stratosphere, mesosphere, and lower thermosphere. SEE is a spectrometer and a suite of photometers, which measure incoming solar irradiance. TIDI, a Fabry-Perot interferometer, measures horizontal vector winds, temperature, and composition in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. The TIMED mission also includes numerous ground-based collaborative observations.

SPA: Solar and Heliospheric

SH21A, SH22D
Magnetic Topology and Complexity of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs)
During enhanced levels of solar activity, CMEs and their interplanetary counterparts make an important contribution to the transport of mass and magnetic flux away from the Sun. The majority of CMEs observed in the heliosphere are complex, showing a high degree of dynamic variability and complex internal magnetic and plasma structure. This session focuses on experimental and theoretical evidence for the causes of complexity of CMEs in both the corona and solar wind and on topological aspects of CME-associated magnetic fields and their contribution to the large-scale coronal and heliospheric magnetic field.

SH21D, SH22A
Energetic Electrons (70 eV to 1 MeV) and Related Electromagnetic Emissions: Probing the Solar Corona and the Heliosphere
Fluxes and distributions of suprathermal and more energetic electrons in the energy range extending above ~70 eV are highly variable in the solar wind. These electrons can be sampled directly in situ and often can be detected remotely by the electromagnetic emissions that they generate. Suprathermal and more energetic electrons are excellent tracers of magnetic field line topology throughout the heliosphere and provide important information about physical processes occurring at distant sites. They are particularly useful for probing the magnetic geometries of coronal mass ejections in the solar wind and corotating interaction regions. Bursts of energetic electrons associated with solar activity reveal some of the underlying dynamics of activity in the solar atmosphere and probe processes that affect particle transport in the heliosphere. Radio observations of these electrons provide a global perspective of the generation and propagation of energetic electrons, while observations of very energetic electrons from both the Sun and galactic sources help reveal the large-scale structure of the heliosphere. This session brings together theorists and experimentalists to highlight and discuss recent developments in this expanding field of research.

SH22B, SH22C, SH31A, SH31B, SH32C
The Heliosphere and Its Surrounding Interstellar Medium
The local interstellar medium (LISM) provides an accessible sample of present-day galactic matter and determines the boundary of our heliosphere. The flow of neutral interstellar gas through the heliosphere and the interaction with the surrounding medium at the boundaries provide ample opportunity for not only in situ observations of particles and fields but also remote sensing observations using photons and energetic neutral atoms. At the same time, vastly improved heliospheric modeling provides a framework into which the observational pieces fit, and exciting new mission and instrument concepts promise to answer some questions but raise even more. This session helps synthesize results from efforts designed to determine the physical parameters and the material composition of the LISM, its interaction with the Sun and solar wind through the formation of pickup ions and neutral solar wind, and the size, shape, and character of the heliosphere and its boundary regions.

SH32A, SH41A, SH42B
Comparative Studies of Solar Activity During the Rising and Declining Phases of Cycle 23
SOHO, ACE, Wind, Ulysses, Yohkoh, GOES, IMP 8, and a number of other satellites and ground installations have been monitoring solar activity since the beginning of the current active period in 1997. These observations have provided unprecedented detailed studies, covering a diverse range of phenomena, including helioseismology, coronal mass ejections, flares, radio emissions, the solar wind, and energetic particles. This session explores what these observations have revealed about the evolution of the Sun and interplanetary medium thus far in Cycle 23, as well as the conditions and physical processes that govern these various manifestations of solar activity.

Parker Lecture
The Parker Lecture is the solar-heliospheric Bowie Lecture for the Space Physics and Aeronomy section. The Bowie Lecture series was inaugurated in 1989 for all sections to commemorate the 50th presentation of the William Bowie Medal, which is AGU's highest honor and is named for AGU's first president. The Bowie Medal was awarded to Eugene Parker in 1990. This meeting's Parker Lecture will be given by Robert P. Lin, of the University of California at Berkeley. He will describe the Sun as the most powerful particle accelerator in the solar system and will discuss our present understanding of the fundamental physical processes in solar flares, based in part on data from the recently launched High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (HESSI) spacecraft.

SH51A, SH52B
The Heliosphere at Solar Maximum: Karolen Paulerena, In Memoriam
The period of solar maximum is of special interest because it includes the time when the Sun's magnetic field changes polarity. This session focuses on the accompanying structural, dynamic, and particle population changes in the heliosphere. Presentations include observations from the Voyagers in the distant heliosphere and from the Ulysses fast latitude scan, coordinated with observations from 1 AU, as well as results from models intended to explain the effects of the changing Sun and the interaction of the solar wind and the interstellar medium. This session is dedicated to the memory of Karolen Paulerena, whose untimely death cut short her blossoming career as a heliospheric physicist.

SH51B, SH52A
Operational Space Weather Products and Models
A variety of space weather data and models are used as tools or direct drivers for operational products that in their totality, encompass all venues (solar, interplanetary, magnetosphere, ionosphere, and neutral atmosphere) of the space environment. These "operationally utilized" data, models, and products often represent the "bottom line" of what many researchers, analysts, and engineers have accomplished. The papers in this session promote understanding of the difference between the tools and the true end user (customer), products and knowledge of which are truly operational. As well, they give information on current operational product use, development, and validation efforts, aiming toward the goal of pointing out which space environmental variables should be scrutinized for potential quantitative, qualitative, or timeliness improvement.

SPA: Magnetospheric Physics

SM21A, SM41B, SM42E
The Physics of the Plasmasphere and Its Coupling to the Ionosphere and Ring Current
Spectacular new remote imaging of the inner magnetosphere regions and other recent observations as well as new simulations have led to dramatic changes in our understanding of the physics of the plasmasphere and its coupling to its ionospheric source and the energetic ring current with which it overlaps. This session will provide a forum to present the latest theoretical, numerical, and observational results related to this region and discuss and debate the physical understanding from them. Topics include exchange between ionosphere and plasmasphere, evolution, convection, and dynamics of the plasmasphere, temporal/spatial structures in the plasmasphere, wave activities, plasmapause phenomena, and hot-cold plasma interactions in the plasmasphere-ring current overlap region.

SM21B, SM32A
Magnetic Field Aligned Electric Fields: Causes and Consequences
This session highlights our understanding of how electric fields are created and the processes that result from their existence in the magnetosphere. Electric fields directed along the background magnetic field play an important role in the acceleration of charged particles in space plasmas. The parallel electric fields which develop between the magnetosphere and the ionosphere produce the aurora. In reconnection regions, such electric fields produce plasma jets which pinpoint the diffusion region. Time-varying electric fields due to solitary structures and waves also play important roles in the physics of particle acceleration in these regions. Similar processes are believed to produce observable astrophysical phenomena. Papers in this session cover theory and modeling; observations from FAST, Cluster, Geotail, Interball, and other spacecraft; and anticipated results from the upcoming Magnetospheric Multiscale mission of the causes and consequences of magnetic field aligned electric fields in space plasmas.

SM22A, SM31B, SM32B
Mysteries of Magnetotail Dynamics
This session will bring together scientists from the recent constellations of spacecraft with interests in advancing our knowledge of magnetotail dynamics. A unique and scientifically powerful cofiguration of spacecraft for the study of magnetospheric dynamics occurred recently when the Polar, Cluster, and Geotail orbits all penetrated into the region of the nightside equatorial magnetosphere. These spacecraft observe magnetospheric dynamics at the critical location where the dipolar magnetic field changes into an extended taillike field. Together with the global views of the IMAGE spacecraft and in situ measurements at strategic positions throughout the magnetosphere with the FAST, SAMPEX, GOES, and Los Alamos geosynchronous satellites, an unprecedented opportunity is offered to study the explosive disruption and subsequent evolution of the magnetotail during substorms and the unresolved reasons for the occurrence of the great magnetic storms.

Research Progress and Model Validation Through Community Access to State-of-the-Art Space Science Models
This session will review scientific progress resulting from community use of publicly accessible space research models. It will also summarize advances in validation and metrics evaluations and provide a forum to discuss new candidate metrics against which models can be evaluated. The growing importance of space weather research activities enhances the need to expand model use for the purpose of model validation through comparison with measurements. The Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) is an activity which strives to accommodate these needs. CCMC provides to the research community the benefit of usage of state-of-the-art space science models.

SM31A, SM32C
Turbulence and Dynamics at the High-Altitude Cusp and Dayside Magnetopause Boundary Layer
The high-altitude cusp and dayside magnetopause boundary layer are the major regions for transferring solar wind energy, mass, and momentum into the Earth's magnetosphere. Large turbulent electromagnetic fields and energetic charged particles with energies of 10-1000 keV are present in these regions. This session addresses the turbulence and dynamics at the high-altitude cusp and dayside magnetopause boundary layer. In situ observations from the CLUSTER II, IMAGE, INTERBALL, and ISTP missions and theoretical studies for understanding of the solar wind drivers, acceleration mechanisms, and plasma source and loss processes will be presented.

Parker Lecture
The Parker Lecture is the solar-heliospheric Bowie Lecture for the Space Physics and Aeronomy section. The Bowie Lecture series was inaugurated in 1989 for all sections to commemorate the 50th presentation of the William Bowie Medal, which is AGU's highest honor and is named for AGU's first president. The Bowie Medal was awarded to Eugene Parker in 1990. This meeting's Parker Lecture will be given by Robert P. Lin, of the University of California at Berkeley. He will describe the Sun as the most powerful particle accelerator in the solar system and will discuss our present understanding of the fundamental physical processes in solar flares, based in part on data from the recently launched High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (HESSI) spacecraft.



G21A, G22A
Integrated Space Geodetic Techniques and Results for Global Earth Observing
The Global Space Geodetic Networks and the terrestrial reference frame have become the fundamental resource in the measurement of sea level, polar mass balance, land surface change, atmospheric dynamics, navigation, time transfer, and national cadastral networks. To advance geodesy's contributions to the Earth sciences, the International Association of Geodesy (IAG) plans to implement an "Integrated Global Geodetic Observing System" in 2003. This session will explore the optimum integration of mature (i.e., SLR, VLBI, GPS, and DORIS) and developing (GLONASS, altimetry, InSAR, gravimetry) geodetic techniques in anticipation of the IAG initiative.

G31A, G32A
Airborne and Spaceborne Laser Altimetry Observations: Scientific Applications, Processing Techniques, and Synergy With Other Remote Sensing Observations
"This session brings together an interdisciplinary group of scientists, engineers, and end users working in the field of laser remote sensing. Topics include geolocation processing, system calibration and performance assessments, data management and visualization, and topography mapping. Applications of laser altimetry discussed include the determination of bare Earth topography (in vegetated or built areas), geomorphology and hazards assessment, recovery of biophysical properties such as canopy height and biomass, surface change studies, applications to the study of glaciers and ice sheets, planetary mapping, and fusion of laser altimetry data with data from other sensors.


A Virtual Session: Analysis of the Oersted, CHAMP, and SAC-C Magnetic Field Constellation
AGU will host a virtual session on the analysis of satellite magnetic field observations from the Oersted , CHAMP, and SAC-C miniconstellation. This special virtual session, AGU's second, will allow the speakers to attend and present a talk without leaving their offices. Over the past 150 years the axial dipole component of the Earth's magnetic field has decayed by nearly 10%. This is 10 times faster than if the dynamo that generates the field were switched off completely. The current decay rate is characteristic of magnetic reversals, which paleomagnetic data sets have shown occur on average about once every half million years. Three new geomagnetic field satellites have recently been placed in low-Earth orbits and are investigating questions such as this rapid decay. Geographically, this decay is due largely to changes in the field in the South Atlantic region, where the expanding and deepening South Atlantic anomaly has serious implications for low-Earth orbit satellite operations. The magnetic field measured at or near the surface of the Earth is the superposition of contributions from a variety of sources: the fluid core, the magnetization of rocks in the Earth's crust, electric currents flowing in the ionosphere and magnetosphere, currents induced in the Earth by the time variations of the field, and electric currents induced by the oceanic circulation. The scientific challenge is the sophisticated separation of these various sources and the accurate determination of the spatial and temporal structure of them all. Multipoint measurements from high-precision satellites are a prerequisite for such characterizations. With the launch of Oersted (1999), CHAMP, and the Oersted 2 experiment on board SAC-C (2000), there are now three satellites in near-Earth orbit measuring the scalar and vector magnetic fields at the nanotesia accuracy level. In order to improve the utilization of these unique data sets, representatives of these projects publicly released simultaneous observations of data from all three satellites at www.dsri.dk/multimagsatellites. The data selection spanned a variety of viewing geometries, local times, and magnetic disturbance levels. Descriptive models and indices were also included. Presentations described the utility, analysis, and interpretation of this coordinated data set, and other data sets, for the study of external current systems, the main field, induction, and crustal fields. For example, recent field surveys have shown that the present north magnetic pole is moving with a velocity of about 40 km/yr northward. This rate is faster than ever observed. If the present trend continues, it will bring the magnetic and geographic poles into close proximity around 2024. Magnetic models derived from the active missions can be used to verify and follow this trend.

From Micro to Macro: Magnetic Measurements and Their Interpretation
This session highlights the latest research on the Martian and lunar magnetic fields, and their interpretation, along with recent results on the carriers of those magnetic fields.

New Developments in Magnetic Instrumentation, Data Acquisition, and Processing
This session is devoted to new advances in the measurement of magnetic fields. Featured talks will include the development of a magnetometer designed to work on the surface of Mars and the mapping of magnetic fields associated with individual mineral grains. Other talks will discuss the development of a miniature magnetometer for a fully featured nanosatellite weighing in at only 25 kg.


GS31A, GS41A
Geochemistry in the Environment: Present and Past
Present and past environmental characteristics including ocean circulation, chemistry, biology, and climate are recorded as isotopic and trace element geochemical tracers. This session will discuss the application of such tracers for understanding the processes and feedbacks in surficial Earth global biogeochemical cycles.


There are several MSA sessions in the theme of Earth's Dynamic Interior. "Mineral Structures and Stabilities" (M51A) focuses on all aspects of mineral crystal structures, as well as on the stability of minerals under varying geological and experimental conditions. "Transformations in Earth Materials" (M32A) presents the manifold of techniques and new results in studies of electronic, magnetic, and structural transformations in Earth materials. Following this session, MSA will make the presentation of the 2002 Dana Medal. The 2002 Dana Medalist is Michael Hochella, who will give the Dana Medal Lecture (M32B) entitled "Nanoscience and Technology - The Next Revolution in the Earth Sciences." "Advances in Mineral Physics Using Synchrotron Radiation" (M22A) provides an interdisciplinary forum for the presentation of frontier techniques and recent results from synchrotron-based studies of Earth materials with applications to the study of the large-scale structure of the Earth and planets. Finally, "Viewing Seismic Observations Through the Lens of Mineral Physics" (M42A) brings seismologists and mineral physicists together to discuss the current hot topics on deep structure of the Earth interior.

Dana Medal Lecture
The Dana Medal is intended to recognize continued outstanding scientific contributions through original research in the mineralogical sciences by an individual in the midst of his or her career. The Mineralogical Society of America Dana Medal was established in 1998 and named in 2000 in honor of the legendary contributions by James Dwight Dana (1813-1895) and Edward Salisbury Dana (1849-1935) to the science of mineralogy. E. S. Dana was Honorary MSA President from 1926 to1935. The 2002 Dana Medalist is Michael F. Hochella Jr.


S32A, S41A
Hotspots and the Dynamics of the Oceanic Upper Mantle
This session will provide an interdisciplinary forum for the presentation of recent results on oceanic mantle dynamics, including hot spot systems, to promote discussion and comparison of observational constraints and theoretical models. Topics are cross-disciplinary, including contributions from seismic experiments, geochemistry, geodynamics, and volcanology. Studies on upper mantle structure and dynamics, as well as several hot spot, plume, and ridge systems, will be presented.

S51A, S52A
Earthquakes and Earth Structure
This session highlights recent discoveries of both earthquake processes and Earth structure. Topics range from earthquake characterization, hazards, monitoring, and precursory phenomena to crust and upper and lower mantle structure. Methods include receiver function analyses, tomographic inversions, waveform modeling, shear wave splitting, and more. These exciting results will be presented in a two-part oral and poster session.


Impact Structures in the Atlantic Coastal Plain, USA: The Chesapeake Bay Crater and the Proposed Johnsonville, SC Crater
The Chesapeake Bay impact structure is one of the Earth's largest and best preserved "wet-target" impact features. This 90-km-wide (or larger) complex crater lies buried within the Virginia Coastal Plain, United States, where it was created 35 million years ago by an impact on the late Eocene continental shelf. This structure has influenced the geologic evolution of the Chesapeake Bay area to the present day and has produced anomalous patterns of groundwater flow and saltwater distribution that place major limitations on the use of the region's groundwater resources. This session explores our rapidly increasing knowledge of the Chesapeake Bay impact structure and a proposed impact structure in South Carolina.

A Memorial Session for Ronald W. Girdler: Rifts, Ridges, Reversals, and Regional Studies
Ron Girdler had an active and productive career. Together with his many students, he worked on several aspects of solid Earth geophysics. From his earlier work on rock magnetics and paleomagnetism through field work in East Africa and the Red Sea to his later interest in the geologic signature of impacts, his studies encompassed a number of AGU sections. Mirroring his career, this session parallels Ron's broad interests with studies of impact structures, the oceanic crust, and rifting processes.

Global Earthquake System Science (Monitoring Earthquakes From Space)
This session will present science results from the recently completed NASA Global Earthquake System Science Program, investigating spaceborne platforms from which to observe earthquakes and their precursors. Contributions explore the interplay between spaceborne earthquake monitoring systems, seismic hazards, and crustal deformation.

Neotectonics and Hazards: Caribbean and Beyond
The Caribbean region offers excellent examples of active tectonic processes such as subduction, strike-slip faulting, and collision. As a consequence, it is also severely exposed to natural hazards such as earthquakes, volcanoes, or tsunamis. In the past few years, significant advances have been made in imaging and understanding the plate kinematic framework and active deformations along the boundaries of the Caribbean plate, thanks to a number of geophysical and geological studies. This sessions aims at bringing together presentations of the most recent results on active deformation processes in the Caribbean and other regions around the world, with a particular emphasis on merging observational results (GPS geodesy, seismology, paleoseismology, marine surveys, etc.), and models.


V21A, V22A
Hydrothermal Environments: Coupling Experimental, Field, and Analytical Techniques
This session will bring together both the analyst and the experimentalist to discuss recent data derived from melt and fluid inclusions in natural systems and controlled laboratory experiments in which the thermodynamics of ore-forming processes are determined.

Daly Lecture
The Daly Lecture will be given this year by Professor Chris Hawkesworth, Department of Earth Sciences, Bristol University, Bristol, UK. Professor Hawkesworth's research interests include the crystallization of magmas in different tectonic settings, partial melting and fluid transfer processes above subduction zones, high-resolution continental records of climate change over the last 150,000 years, the use of transition metal isotopes to investigate processes at the interface between biological and inorganic geochemistry, and the processes of melt generation in large igneous provinces. The Daly Lecture, part of AGU's Bowie Lecture Series, is an hour-long presentation in honor of Reginald A. Daly, the distinquished petrologist who was awarded the Bowie Medal in 1946. Professor Hawkesworth's talk is entitled "Time Scales of Magmatic Processes" and will be given Tuesday, 28 May at 4:15 P.M. in Room 33 of the Washington Convention Center. The lecture will be followed by the joint reception for the Planetary Sciences and VGP.

V31A, V32A
Determining Diamond Provenance
The need to remove so-called "conflict diamonds" from the market has provided an added urgency to discover characteristic properties that reveal the history of diamond genesis and emplacement. This session will focus on the most recent advances in diamond analysis and characterization and their implications regarding diamond formation and provenancing.

Minerals, Solutions, and Microbial Life
Microbes play an important role in the geochemistry of the planet. This session will bring together theoretical, experimental, and observational studies on a variety of biochemical and geochemical systems that cover low to extreme conditions of temperature, pressure, pH, salinity, dessication, and radiation.

V51A, V52A
Multidisciplinary Constraints on Volcanic Volatile Budgets
Volcanoes can emit volatiles both passively and explosively, impacting the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere on scales from local to global. This session will bring together remote sensors, petrologists, volcanologists, geochemists, and hopefully geophysicists to discuss topical work on the supply, storage, and emission of volcanic gases.

V51B, V52B
Element Partitioning and Diffusion in the Earth's Interior
This session will discuss recent progress in the field of element partitioning and diffusion at high pressures and temperatures. Geochemical models of large-scale differentiation processes such as core formation, mineral fractionation in a deep magma ocean, and partial melting beneath hot spots, mid-ocean ridges, and subduction zones require accurate studies of major and trace element partitioning and diffusion at conditions relevant to the Earth's deep interior.

Education on Volcanology at the Graduate and Undergraduate Levels
This session will explore the range and depth of courses offered in volcanology at many universities and help students understand and improve the role volcanology plays in general science education.

Volatiles and Light Elements in Magmatic Systems
This session aims to bring together recent and ongoing studies which highlight the role of volatiles (e.g., CO2, H2O, SO2 Cl) and light elements (e.g., Li, Be, B, F) in various magmatic systems such as MORB, OIB, and subduction systems.


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